Forest Sciences Centre 2931
2424 Main Mall
Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z4
work phone: 6048226109

Areas of research include:

  • Supply chain management
  • Mathematical modeling and optimization
  • Multi-criteria decision making
  • Simulation
  • Life cycle assessment


Coordinated and synchronized operational level planning of forest-based biomass supply chains Current
April, 2019March, 2023


Model based optimization of operational level harvest planning and integration with tactical level planning Current
September, 2019August, 2023

Mitacs and Western Forest Products

Breakthrough technologies to increase Canadian renewable natural gas production from forest residues Current
December, 2019March, 2021

NRCan Clean Growth

Eco-design and life cycle engineering Completed
January, 2019June, 2019

PWI and Embassy of France in Canada

Evaluation of wood waste recovery strategies using multi-criteria decision making Completed
June, 2018December, 2018

NSERC-Engage (City of Vancouver)

Analysis and optimization of biomass logistics Completed
June, 2017December, 2017

NSERC-Engage (Nexterra)

Operational level transportation, inventory and processing optimization of forest biomass supply chain Completed
March, 2016September, 2016

NSERC-Engage (Cloverdale Fuel)

Use of Simulation modeling to analyze the effect of staff changes Completed
January, 2015July, 2015

Mitacs and Weyerhaeuser

Process flow improvement at a Parallam mill using simulation modeling Completed
July, 2015December, 2015

Mitacs and Weyerhaeuser

Integrated and sustainable forest biomass supply chain planning Completed
April, 2014March, 2019


Analysis of forest biomass supply chains Completed

NSERC-Strategic Network on Value Chain Optimization (Transfer Project)

Economic, social and environmental optimization of forest biomass value chain Completed

NSERC-Strategic Network on Value Chain Optimization

Value chain optimization at Capital Power Completed

Capital Power

Utilization of C&D waste to produce biofuels Completed
May, 2018December, 2018

City of Vancouver

Evaluating potential partnerships in forest products value chains Completed

NSERC-Strategic Network on Value Chain Optimization

Information technology investments in wood industry Completed

Centre for Management of Technology and Entrepreneurship

Feasibility study of wood pellet production in BC Completed

Korea Wood Pellet Corporation

Optimization of forest biomass supply chain – incorporating uncertainties Completed
April, 2009March, 2014


Assessment of an integrated forest biomass supply and logistics model Completed

Canadian Bureau for International Education

Assessment of information technology investments using multi-criteria decision making Completed

Centre for Management of Technology and Entrepreneurship

Modeling of off-gassing for wood pellets Completed


Job costing system in a wood manufacturing company Completed

Raywal Cabinets

Life Cycle Analysis of windows for North American residential market Completed

NRCan-Value to Wood

Efficiency measurement and improvement in the Canadian wood industry Completed
April, 2004March, 2009


International Smart-fm Completed


Professional Affiliations

Engineers and Geoscientists of BC
Canadian Operational Research Society CORS
Institute for Operations Research and Management Sciences INFORMS


Canadian Operational Research Society Service Award , 2012
UBC Killam Teaching Prize 2011-12, Faculty of Forestry Nominee: Runner up , 2011
Award for outstanding application of Operational Research – Second prize – Canadian Operational Research Society , 2006

Current Graduate Students

Sahar Ahmadvand, PhD
Uncertainties in forest-based biomass supply chain optimization
Salar Ghotb, PhD
Optimization of log logistics planning
Rohit Arora, PhD
Optimization of harvest scheduling
Maziyar Khadivi, MASc
Forest-based biomass for renewable natural gas production

Previous Students, Post Doctoral Fellows and Research Assistants

  • Krishna Malladi, PhD
  • Shaghaygh Akhtari, PhD
  • Claudia Cambero, PhD
  • Mehdi Piltan, PhD
  • Nazanin Shabani, PhD
  • Mahdi Mobini, PhD
  • Mahmood Ebadian, PhD
  • Saeed Ghafghazi, PhD
  • Evelyn Gao, MSc
  • Luke Opacic, MSc
  • Diana Siller, Msc
  • Shaghaygh Akhtari, MASc
  • Richard Hewitt, MSc
  • Pooria Assadi, MASc
  • Mohammadhossein Mahmoudi, MASc
  • James Salazar, MSc
  • Saba Vahid, MASc
  • Neda Salehirad, MASc
  • Shaghaygh Akhtari, Postdoc fellow
  • Adindu Emagolu, Postdoc fellow
  • Olivier Quirion-Blais, Postdoc fellow
  • Yan Maier, Visiting scholar
  • Dan Yu, Visiting scholar
  • Mahdi Mobini, Visiting scholar
  • Tim Schroeder, Visiting scholar
  • Mariane Hans Alexandre, Visiting scholar
  • Laura Hombach, Visiting scholar
  • Frederik Trippe, Visiting scholar
  • Jorn Meyer, Visiting scholar
  • Bjorn Nilsson, Visiting scholar
  • Carolina Casas Cordero, Visiting scholar
  • Sebastian Delmas, Visiting scholar
  • Azamdokht Safi Samghabadi, Visiting scholar

Current Courses

Winter 2020

WOOD330 Industrial Engineering Sections

Use of industrial engineering concepts and methods to analyze and improve organizations, including operations strategy and competitiveness, quality control, work measurement, inventory management, linear programming, sensitivity analysis, transportation problems, and capacity planning.

Winter 2020

WOOD440 Engineering Economics Sections

Use of engineering economics to evaluate investment proposals of an engineering nature, including decision making processes, time value of money, cash flow analysis, comparison methods, depreciation, replacement analysis, taxes, inflation and sensitivity analysis.

Winter 2020

WOOD492 Modelling for Decision Support Sections

Applications of mathematical modelling, optimization, and simulation in forest planning and manufacturing; formulating models and interpreting results for decision support.

Selected Publications

Akhtari. S., Sowlati, T. (2020). Hybrid optimization-simulation for integrated planning of bioenergy and biofuel supply chain Applied Energy, 259: 1-15.
Malladi, K.T., Sowlati, T. (2020). Impact of carbon pricing policies on the cost and emission of the biomass supply chain optimization models Applied Energy, 267,
Malladi, K.T., Sowlati, T. (2020). Bi-objective optimization of biomass supply chains considering carbon pricing policies Applied Energy, 264,
Akhtari, S., Sowlati, T., Griess, V.C. (2019). Optimal design of a forest-based biomass supply chain based on decision maker’s viewpoint towards risk. Forest Science. Published online –
Maier, J., Sowlati, T., Salazar, J. (2019). Life cycle assessment of forest-based biomass for bioenergy: A case study in British Columbia, Canada Resources, Conservation and Recycling. 146: 598-609.
Quirion-Blais, O., Malladi, K.T., Sowlati, T., Gao, E., Mui, C. (2019). Analysis of feedstock requirement for the expansion of a biomass-fed district heating system considering variations in heat demand and biomass quality Energy Conversion and Management. 187: 554-564.
Gao, Y., Sowlati, T., Akhtari, S. (2019). Profit allocation in collaborative bienergy and biofuel supply chains Energy – The International Journal, 188: 1-13.
Schroder, T., Lauven, L.P., Sowlati. T., Geldermann, J. (2019). Strategic planning of a multi-product wood-biorefinery system Journal of Cleaner Production. 211: 1502-1516
Akhtari, S., Sowlati, T., Siller, D., Roser, D. (2019). Evaluating the impact of inventory management on demand fulfilment, cost and emission of forest-based biomass supply chains using simulation modelling Biosystems Engineering. 178: 184-199
Malladi, K.T., Sowlati, T. (2018). Optimization of biomass logistics: A review of important features incorporated in the models and new trends Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews. 94: 587-599.
Akhtari, S., Sowlati, T., Verena Griess (2018). Integrated strategic and tactical optimization of forest-based biomass supply chains to address medium-term supply and demand variations Applied Energy. 213: 626-638.
Malladi, K.T., Quirion-Blais, O., Sowlati, T. (2018). Development of a decision support tool for maximizing short term forest-based biomass logistics Applied Energy. 216: 662-677
Opacic, L., Sowlati, T., Mobini, M. (2018). Design and development of a simulation-based decision support tool to improve the production process at an engineered wood products mill International Journal of Production Economics. 199: 209-219
Malladi, K., Sowlati, T. (2018). Sustainability aspects in inventory routing problem – A review of new trends in the literature International Journal of Cleaner Production. 197: 804-814
Opacic, L., Sowlati, T. (2017). Applications of discrete-event simulation in the forest products sector – A review Forest Products Journal, 67(3/4): 219-229.
Malladi, K., Sowlati, T. (2017). Optimization of operational level transportation planning in forestry: A review International Journal of Forest Engineering. 28(3): 198-210.
Piltan, M., Sowlati, T. (2016). A multi-criteria decision support model for evaluating the performance of partnerships Expert Systems with Applications, 45: 373-384.
Cambero, S., Sowlati, T., Pavel, M. (2016). Economic and life cycle environmental optimization of forest-based biorefinery supply chains for bioenergy and biofuel production Chemical Engineering Research and Design. 107: 218-235.
Akhtari, S., Sowlati, T. (2016). Hybrid simulation and optimization approaches to tackle supply chain complexities – A review with a focus on forest products supply chains J-FOR: The Journal of Science and Technology for Forest Products and Processes. 5(5): 26-39.
Piltan, M., Sowlati, T. (2016). Multi-criteria assessment of partnership components Expert Systems with Applications, 64: 605-617.
Cambero, C., Sowlati, T. (2016). Incorporating social benefits in multi-objective optimization of forest-based bioenergy and biofuel supply Applied Energy. 178:721-735.
Shabani, N., Sowlati, T. (2016). Evaluating the impact of uncertainty and variability on the value chain optimization of a forest biomass power plant International Journal of Green Energy. 13(7): 631-641.
Shabani, N., Sowlati, T. (2016). A hybrid stochastic programming-robust optimization model for maximizing the value chain of a forest biomass power plant under uncertainty Journal of Cleaner Production, 112 (4): 3285-3293.
Piltan, M., Sowlati, T. Cohen, D., Gaston, C., Kozak, R. (2016). Analysis of the drivers and factors influencing partnership performance in the British Columbia’s forest products supply chain J-FOR: The Journal of Science and Technology for Forest Products and Processes. 5(5): 65-76.
Sowlati, T. (2016). Modeling of forest and wood residues supply chains for bioenergy and biofuel production Elsevier/ Woodhead Publishing series in Energy. Jens Bo Holm-Nielsen and Ehiaze Augustine Ehimen (eds.).
Homebach, L., Cambero, C., Sowlati, T., Walther, G. (2016). Optimal design of supply chains for second generation biofuels incorporating European biofuel regulations Journal of Cleaner Production. 131: 565-575.
Cambero, C., Alexandre, M., Sowlati, T. (2015). Life cycle greenhouse gas analysis of bioenergy generation alternatives using forest and wood residues in remote locations: a case study in British Columbia, Canada Resources, Conservation & Recycling, 105: 59-72.
Cambero, C., Sowlati, T., Marinescu, M., Roser, D. (2015). Strategic optimization of a forest residue to bioenergy and biofuels supply chain International Journal of Energy Research, 39: 439-452.
Shabani, N., Sowlati, T. Ouhimmou, M., Ronnqvist, M. (2014). Tactical supply chain planning for a forest biomass power plant under supply uncertainty Energy – The International Journal, 78: 346-355.
Akhtari, S., Sowlati, T., Day, K. (2014). Optimal flow of forest biomass to a district heating system in Williams Lake, BC. International Journal of Energy Research. 38: 945-964.
Sowlati, T. (2014). Current and future role of information technology in the global forest sector. In The Global Forest Sector: Changes, Practices, and Prospects. E. Hansen, R. Panwar, and R. Vlosky (eds.). CRC press
Akhtari S., Sowlati ,T., Day, K. (2014). Economic feasibility of utilizing forest biomass in district energy systems: A review Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 33: 117 – 127
Akhtari S., Sowlati, T., Day , K. (2014). The effects of variations in supply accessibility and amount on economics of using regional forest biomass for generating district heat Energy-The International Journal, 67: 631-640
Piltan, M. Sowlati, T. (2014). A review of partnership studies in the forest products value chains – with a focus on developed countries (US, Canada and Western Europe) Forest Products Journal. 64 (1/2): 4-10.
Ebadian, M., Sowlati, T., Sokhansanj, S., Stumborg, M., Townley-Smith, L. (2014). Development of an integrated tactical and operational planning model for supply of feedstock to a commercial-scale bioethanol plant Biofuels, Bioproducts and Biorefining. 8: 171-188.
Mobini, M., Meyers, J., Trippe, F., Sowlati, T., Froehling, M., Schultmann, F (2014). Assessing the integration of torrefaction into the wood pellet production Journal of Cleaner Production. 78: 216-225.
Cambero, C., Sowlati, T. (2014). Assessment and optimization of forest biomass supply chains from economic, environmental and social perspectives – A review of literature Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews. 36: 62-73.
Mobini, M., Sowlati, T. Roser, D. (2014). Utilization of forest harvesting residues for bioenergy generation: applications of simulation modeling Executive Summary. NSERC Strategic Network on Value Chain Optimization. Issue 15, Nov. 2014
Piltan, M., Sowlati, T. (2014). A successful partnership for getting more value from the forest Branchlines, 24 (4): 6-7.
Mobini, M., Sowlati, T., Sokhansanj, S. (2013). A simulation model for the design and analysis of wood pellet supply chain Applied Energy, 111: 1239-1249.
Shabani, N., Sowlati, T., (2013). A mixed integer non-linear programming model for tactical value chain optimization of a wood biomass power plant. Applied Energy, 104: 353-361.
Shabani, N., Akhtari, S., Sowlati, T. (2013). Value chain optimization of forest biomass for bioenergy production: A review Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 23: 299-311.
Hewitt, R., Sowlati, T., Paradi, J.C. (2013). Analysis of Available Software Products in the North American Cabinet Industry International Journal of Management Science, 5(3):281-296.
Ebadian, M., Sowlati, T., Sokhansanj, S., Stumborg, M., Townley-Smith, L. (2013). Modeling and analyzing storage systems in agricultural biomass supply chain for cellulosic ethanol production Applied Energy, 102: 840-849.
Hewitt, R. Sowlati, T., Paradi, J.C. (2012). Evaluation of strategic software investment for the Canadian cabinet industry Forest Products Journal, 62(7/8): 597-606.
Ebadian, M., Sowlati, T., Sokhansanj, S., Stumborg, M., Townley-Smith, L. (2011). A new simulation model for multi-agricultural biomass logistics system in bioenergy production Biosystems Engineering, 110 (3):280-290.
Lindroos, O., Nilsson, B., Sowlati, T. (2011). Costs, CO2 emissions and energy balances of applying Nordic slash recovery methods in British Columbia Western Journal of Applied Forestry, 26(1):30-36.
Ghafghazi, S., Sowlati, T., Sokhansanj, S., Bi, X., Melin, S. (2011). Life cycle assessment of base-load heat sources for district heating system options International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment, 16(3): 212-223.
Ghafghazi, S., Sowlati, T., Sokhansanj, Bi, X., S., Melin, S. (2011). Particulate matter emissions from combustion of wood in district heating applications Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 15(1): 3019-3028
Hewitt, R., Sowlati, T., Paradi, J.C (2011). Information Technology Adoption in United States and Canadian Forest Industries Forest Products Journal, 61(2):161-169.
Mobini, M., Sowlati, T., Sokhansanj, S. (2011). Forest biomass supply logistics for a power plant using the discrete-event simulation approach Applied Energy. 2011. 88 (4): 1241-1250.
Stephen, J., Sokhansanj, S., Bi, X., Sowlati, T., Kloeck, T., Twonly-Smith, L., Stumborg, M.A. (2010). The impact of agricultureal residue yield range on the delivered cost to a biorefinery in the Peace River Region of Alberta Biosystems Engineering, 105(3): 298-305.
Stephen, J., Sokhansanj, S., Bi, X., Sowlati, T., Kloeck, T., Townley-Smith, L., Stumborg, M.A. (2010). Analysis of biomass feedstock availability and variability for the Peace River region of Alberta, Canada Biosystems Engineering, 105(1): 103-111.
Sowlati, T., Assadi, P., Paradi, J.C. (2010). Developing a mathematical programming model for sensitivity analysis in analytic hierarchy process International Journal of Mathematics in Operations Research, 2(3): 290-301.
Ghafghazi, S., Sowlati, T., Sokhansanj, S., Melin, S. (2010). Techno-economic analysis of renewable energy source options for a district heating project International Journal of Energy Research, 34: 1109-1120.
Ghafghazi, S., Sowlati, T., Sokhansanj, S., Melin, S. (2010). A multi-criteria approach for evaluating district heating system options Applied Energy, 87(4):1134-1140.
Tumuluru, J.S., Sokhansanj, S., Lim, C.J., Bi, X., Lau, A., Melin, S., Sowlati, T., Oveisi, E. (2010). Quality of wood pellets produced in British Columbia for export Applied Engineering in Agriculture, 26(6):1013-1020.
Chau, J., Sowlati, T. (2009). Wood biomass for greenhouse heating Branchlines, , 20 (2): 20-21
Assadi, P., Sowlati, T. (2009). Design and manufacturing software selection in the wood industry using Analytic Hierarchy Process International Journal of Business Innovation and Research, 3(2): 182-198.
Assadi, P., Sowlati, T., Paradi, J.C. (2009). Multi-criteria evaluation of design and manufacturing software packages considering the interdependencies between criteria: The ANP approach International Journal of Information and Decision Sciences, 1(4): 397-410.
Chau, J. , Sowlati, T., Sokhansanj, S., Preto, F., Melin, S., Bi, T. (2009). Economic sensitivity of wood biomass utilization for greenhouse heating application Applied Energy, 86(5): 616-621.
Mahmoudi, M., Sowlati, T., Sokhansanj, S. (2009). The Logistics of Supplying Biomass from a Mountain Pine Beetle Infested Forest to a Power Plant in British Columbia Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research, 24(1): 76-86.
Chau, J., Sowlati, T., Sokhansanj, S., Preto, F., Melin, S., Bi, X. (2009). Optimizing the mixture of wood biomass for greenhouse heating International Journal of Energy Research, 33(1): 274-284.
Chau, J., Sowlati, T., Sokhansanj, S., Preto, F., Melin, S., Bi, X. (2009). Techno-economic analysis of wood biomass biolers for the greenhouse industry Applied Energy, 86 (3): 364-371
Salazar, J., Sowlati, T. (2008). A review on life cycle assessment of windows Forest Products Journal, 59 (10): 91-96.
Vahid, S., Sowlati, T. (2008). Productivity changes of the wood product manufacturing sector in the US Applied Mathematical Sciences, 2 (17): 799-816
Salazar, J., Sowlati, T. (2008). Life cycle analysis of windows for the residential market in North America Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research, 23(2): 121-132
Aydinel, M., Sowlati, T., Cerda, X., Cope, E., Gerschman, M. (2008). Optimization of production allocation and transportation of customer orders for a leading forst products company Mathematical and Computer Modelling, 48(7/8): 1158-1169.
Vahid, S., Sowlati, T. (2007). Efficiency analysis of the Canadian wood product manufacturing sub-sectors– A DEA approach Forest Products Journal, 57(1/2): 71-77.
Salehirad, N., Sowlati, T. (2007). Dynamic efficiency analysis of the primary wood producers in British Columbia Mathematical and Computer Modelling, 45 (9/10): 1179-1188
Sowlati, T. (2007). The use of nonparametric statistical tests in defining the number of periods to include in an intertemporal DEA analysis International Transactions in Operational Research, 14: 203-215
Salehirad, N., Sowlati, T. (2006). Productivity and efficiency assessment of the wood industry – A review with a focus on Canada Forest Products Journal. 56(11/12): 25-32.
Sowlati, T., Vahid, S. (2006). Malmquist total factor productivity of manufacturing sector in Canada Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research. 21(5): 424-433
Salazar, J., Sowlati, T. (2006). Life cycle assessment of windows Branchlines. 17(1):4-5
Salazar, J., Sowlati, T. (2006). Modeling the life cycle processes of aluminum clad wood windows Technical Session Proceedings – Wood Biomass Utilization: Challenges and Opportunities. Forest Products Society 60th International Convention.
Salehirad, N., Sowlati, T. (2005). Performance Analysis of Primary Wood Producers in British Columbia using DEA Canadian Journal of Forest Research. 35(2): 285-294
Marinescu, M., Sowlati, T., Maness, T. (2005). The development of a timber allocation model using Data Envelopment Analysis Canadian Journal of Forest Research. 35(10): 2304-2315.
Sowlati, T. (2005). Efficiency Studies in Forestry using Data Envelopment Analysis Forest Products Journal. 55(1): 49-57
Sowlati, T., Paradi, J.C., Suld, C. (2005). Information Systems Project Prioritization using Data Envelopment Analysis Mathematical and Computer Modelling. 41(11/12): 1279-1298
Sowlati, T., Paradi, J.C. (2004). Establishing the Practical Frontier in Data Envelopment Analysis Omega – International Journal of Management Science. 32(4):261-272
Sowlati, T. (2003). Compression data to compete: Is Data Envelopment the answer? Woodworking Magazine, Volume 17, Issue 2, page 31
Sowlati, T. (2002). Efficiency Improvement in the Canadian Wood Industry Branchlines. 13(1): 2