Forest Sciences Centre 3601
2424 Main Mall
Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z4
work phone: 6048221955

Areas of research include:

  • Forest ecology
  • Plant-soil microbial interactions
  • Plant-plant interactions
  • Ectomycorrhizae
  • Mycorrhizal networks
  • Forest stand dynamics (regeneration, growth, mortality)
  • Forest disturbances
  • Complex adaptive systems and ecological resilience
  • Global change



The Mother Tree Project Current
May, 2017May, 2019

Forest Enhancement Society of British Columbia (Roach, Simard)

Designing successful forest renewal practices for our changing climate Current
September, 2015August, 2019

NSERC SPG (Simard, Roach, Pickles, Lavkulich, Mohn, Pither)

Plant­mycorrhizal fungal interaction networks: understanding their role in the resilience and adaptation of forests to climate change Current
April, 2016March, 2021


The Salmon Forest Project Current
May, 2017May, 2019

Donner Canadian Foundation (Simard, Ryan)

Using the functional traits of soil fungi to improve post-disturbance pine regeneration Current
May, 2015May, 2018

NSERC SPG (Erbigin, Cahill, Karst, Simard)

Professional Affiliations

Ecological Society of America ESA
National Center for Ecosystem Analysis and Synthesis NCEAS


Killam Teaching Award , 2006

Current Graduate Students

Amanda Asay, PhD
Does kin selection play a facilitative role in regeneration of forests under climate stress?
Camille Defrenne, PhD
Investigating the role of root architecture in forest stand dynamics
Allen Larocque, PhD
Mycorrhizae in salmon forests
Laura Super, PhD
Assessing the impact of anthropogenic change on understory communities: impacts on plants, their mycobiomes, and associated invertebrates
Katie McMahen, PhD
Forest Legacy-Based Mine reclamation methods for facilitating recolonization of mycorrhiza communities
Dixi Ghael, PhD
Determining mechanisms of antibiosis against Armillaria root rot in tree species mixtures
Huamani Orrego, MSc
The Great Bear Forest: Traditional Ecological Knowledge and Mycorrhizal Networks.

Post Doctoral Fellows and Research Assistants

Dr. Teresa Ryan
Dr. Shannon Guichon

Previous Students, Post Doctoral Fellows and Research Assistants

Previous students:

Gabriel Orrego, MSc, 2018

Anthony Leung, MSc, 2018

Monika Gorzelak, PhD, 2017

Amanda Mathys, PhD, 2017

Shannon Guichon, PhD, 2016

Julia Maddison, MSc, 2016

Deon Louw, MSc, 2016

Matt Zustovic, MSc, 2016

Gregory Pec, PhD, 2015

Amanda Asay, MSc, 2014

Federico Osorio, MSc, 2014

Julia Chandler, PhD, 2014

Trevor Blenner-Hassett, PhD, 2013

Kevin Beiler, PhD, 2011

Marcus Bingham, PhD, 2010

Jason Barker, PhD, 2010

Julie Deslippe, PhD, 2009

Julia Dordel, PhD, 2009

Marty Kranabetter, PhD, 2008

Francois Teste, PhD, 2008

Brendan Twieg, MSc, 2006

Leanne Phillip, PhD, 2006

Karen Baleshta, MSc, 2003

Rhonda Delong, MSc (UNBC with Kathy Lewis), 1999

Mikko Utunen, MSc (U Helsinki with Pasi Puttonen), 1997

Previous Postdocs, Research Associates and Visiting Scientists

Dr. Shannon Guichon, 2018-current

Dr. Teresa Ryan, 2015-current

Dr. Brian Pickles, 2011-2016

Dr. Andrea Norris, TerreWEB, 2012-2013

Dr. Yuanyuan Song, 2011-2012

Dr. Toktam Sajedi, 2011-2012

Dr. Julie Deslippe, 2010-2011

Dr. Julia Dordel, 2009-2010

Dr. Sybille Haeussler, 2005-2007

Dr. Olga Kazantseva, 2003-2005

Current Courses

Winter 2020

FRST201 Forest Ecology Sections

The structure and function of forest ecosystems, including: energetics; productivity; nutrient, carbon and water cycling; soils; the physical environment; population and community ecology; disturbance ecology; ecological succession; biological diversity and ecological resilience.

Winter 2020

FRST557 Site-Level Forest Land Management Sections

Design and implementation of site-level plans that integrate ecological, social, and economic components: silviculture, forest operations, and forest health.

Other Courses and Workshops

FRST 411/511: Complex Adaptive Systems, Global Change Science and Ecological Sustainability


Selected Publications

Simard, S.W. (2021). Finding the Mother Tree Penguin Random House
Modi, D., Simard, S.W., Bérubé, J., Lavkulich, L., Hamelin, R., and Grayston, S.J. (2020). Long-term effects of stump removal and tree species composition on the diversity and structure of soil fungal communities FEMS Microbiology Ecology 96(5): fiaa061
Pec, G.J., Simard, S.W., Cahill, J.F., and Karst, J. (2020). The effects of ectomycorrhizal fungal networks on seedling establishment are contingent on species and severity of overstorey mortality Mycorrhiza 30(2):
Ibarra, J.T. Cockle, K., Altamirano, T., Van der Hoek, Y., Simard, S.W., Bonacic, C., and Martin, K. (2020). Nurturing resilient forest biodiversity: nest webs as complex adaptive systems Ecology and Society in press
Birch, J.D., Simard, S.W., Beiler, K., and Karst, J. (2020). Ectomycorrhizal network connectivity is associated with greater growth of adult interior Douglas-fir Journal of Ecology
Rodriguez-Ramos, J.; Cale, J.; Cahill Jr, J.F. ; Simard, S.W.; Karst, J.; Erbilgin, N. (2020). Changes in soil fungal community composition depend on functional group and forest disturbance type New Phytologist in press
Louw, D., Pickles, B.J., Gibeau, P., and Simard, S.W. (2020). A long-term addition series experiment reveals increased health and no impact on volume of interior Douglas-fir when grown in mixture with paper birch Forestry
Simard, S.W., Roach, W.J., Defrenne, C.E., Pickles, B.J., Snyder, E.N., Robinson, A., and Lavkulich, L.M. (2020). Harvest intensity effects on carbon stocks and biodiversity are dependent on regional climate in Douglas-fir forests of British Columbia Frontiers in Forests and Global Change doi: 10.3389/ffgc.2020.00088
Van Dorp, C., Durall, D.M., and Simard, S.W. (2020). Resilience of Rhizopogon-Douglas-fir mycorrhizal networks 25 years after selective logging Mycorrhiza, in press.
Leclerc ME, Griess VC, Harper G, Simard SW (2020). Effects of pre-commercial thinning on growth and diversity of paper birch leading stands 25 years following thinning. Ministry of Forests, Lands, Natural Resource Operations & Rural Development, Victoria, B.C. Extension Note.
Beck, J.L., Cale, J.A., Rodriguez‐Ramos, J.C., Kanekar, S.S., Karst, J., Cahill, J.F., Simard, S.W., and Erbilgin, N. (2020). Changes in soil fungal communities following anthropogenic disturbance are linked to decreased lodgepole pine seedling performance Journal of Applied Ecology 00: 1-11
Defrenne, C.E., Philpott, T.J., Guichon, S.H.A., Roach, W.J., Pickles, B.J. and Simard, S.W. (2019). Environment and fine-root traits relate to shifts in ectomycorrhizal fungal communities across interior Douglas-fir forests of western Canada Frontiers in Plant Science 10: 643
Birch, J.D., Lutz, J.A., Hogg, E.H., Simard, S.W., Pelletier, R., LaRoi, G.H., and Karst, J. (2019). Decline of an ecotone forest: 50 years of demography in the southern boreal forest. Ecosphere 10(4):e02698
Birch, J.D., Lutz, J.A., Simard, S.W., Pelletier, R., LaRoi, G.H., and Karst, J. (2019). Density-dependent processes fluctuate over 50-years in an ecotone forest Oecologia 191: 909–918
Defrenne CE, McCormack LM, Roach WJ, Addo-Danso SD, and Simard SW (2019). Intraspecific fine-root trait-environment relationships across interior Douglas-Fir forests of western Canada Plants 8: 199
Snyder, E., Simard, S.W. (2018). It starts with soil: how to increase the resilience of urban forests Sitelines October, 8-9
Simard, S.W. (2018). Foreward Thus Spoke the Plant, by Monica Gagliano. North Atlantic Books / ISBN: 9781623172435
Simard, S.W. (2018). Mycorrhizal networks facilitate tree communication, learning and memory In: Baluska, F., Gagliano, M., and Witzany, G. (eds.), Memory and Learning in Plants. / Springer •ISBN 978-3-319-75596-0. Chapter 10, pp. 191-213.
Willams, R., Cheung, D., Simard, S.W., Beiler, K.J., Defrenne, C. (2018). Talking trees National Geographic 233 (6): 26.
Mathys, A.S., Coops, N.C., Simard, S.W., Waring, R.H., and Aitken, A.N. (2018). Diverging distribution of seedlings and mature trees reflects recent climate Ecological Modelling 384: 145-153
Maddison, J.A., Kržic, M.́, Simard, S.W., Adderly, C., and Khan, S. (2018). Shroomroot – an action-based digital game to enhance postsecondary teaching and learning about mycorrhizae American Biology Teacher, 80(1): 11-20. DOI: 10.1525/abt.2018.80.1.11
Pither J, Pickles BJ, Simard SW, Ordonez A, Williams JW (2018). Belowground biotic interactions moderated the post-glacial range dynamics of trees New Phytologist New Phytolgoist 220: 1148-1160
Chandler JR, Haeussler S, Hamilton EH, Feller M, Bradfield G, and Simard SW (2017). Twenty years of ecosystem response after clearcutting and slashburning in conifer forests of central British Columbia, Canada Public Library of Science PLoS ONE 12(2): e0172667.
St-Denis, A., Kneeshaw, D., Bélanger, N., Simard, S.W., Laforest-Lapointe, I. and Messier, C. (2017). Species-specific responses to forest soil inoculum in planted trees in an abandoned agricultural field Elsevier Applied Soil Ecology 112: 1-10.
Pickles, D.R.B., and Simard, S.W. (2017). Mycorrhizal networks and forest resilience to drought. Elsevier In: Johnson, N. C., Gehring, C. and Jansa, J. (eds.) Mycorrhizal Mediation of Soil – Fertility, Structure, and Carbon Storage. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp. 319-339. ISBN 9780128043127
Simard, S.W. (2017). The mother tree. K. Verlag and the Haus der Kulturen der Welt, Berlin Edited by Anna-Sophie Springer & Etienne Turpin. The Word for World is Still Forest. ISBN 978-3-9818635-0-5
Zimonick, B.J., Roach, W.J., and Simard, S.W. (2017). Selective removal of paper birch increases growth of juvenile Douglas-fir while minimizing impacts on the plant community Scandanavian Journal of Forest Research 32: 708-716.
Pec GJ, Karst J, Taylor DL, Cigan PW, Erbilgin N, Cooke JEK, Simard SW and Cahill Jr. JF (2017). Change in soil fungal community structure driven by a decline in ectomycorrhizal fungi following a mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) outbreak New Phytologist, 213: 864-873.
C Potvin, D Sharma, I Creed, S Aitken, F Anctil, E Bennett, F Berkes, S Bernstein, Nathalie B, A Bourque, B Brown…S Simard…et al. (2017). Stimulating a Canadian narrative for climate Facets 2:131-149.
Miller, T.A., Zapf-Gilje, R., Simard. S.W., and Anglin, L. (2016). Mount Polley Breach Human Health and Ecological Risk Assessment – Summary of Preliminary Findings Proceedings Tailings and Mine Waste, October 2-5, 2016, Keystone Colorado, USA, pages 879-889.
Defrenne, C.A., Oka, G.A., Wilson, J.E., Simard, S.W. and Lavkulich, L.M. (2016). Disturbance legacy on soil carbon stocks and stability within a coastal temperate forest of southwestern British Columbia, Canada Scientific Research Publishing Open Journal of Forestry 6: 305-323.
Deslippe , J.R., Hartmann, M., Grayston, S.J., Simard, S.W., and Mohn, W.W. (2016). Stable isotope probing implicates Cortinarius collinitus in carbon transfer through ectomycorrhizal mycelial networks in the field New Phytologist, 210: 383-390
Simard, S.W. (2016). Unseen connections. Marc Guttman We Discover,
Pickles BJ, Wilhelm R, Asay AK, Hahn A, Simard SW, and Mohn WW (2016). Transfer of 13C between paired Douglas-fir seedlings reveals plant kinship effects and uptake of exudates by ectomycorrhizas New Phytologist, 214: 400-411.
Simard SW (2016). Note from a Forest Scientist Greystone Books The Hidden Life of Trees, by Peter Wohlleben. ISBN 978-1-77164-248-1
Chaudhary VB, Rúa MA, Antoninka A, Bever JD, Cannon J, Craig A, Duchicela J, Frame A, Gardes M, Gehring C, Ha M, Hart M, Hopkins J, Ji B, Johnson NC, Kaonongbua W, Karst J, Koide R, Lamit LJ, Meadow J, Milligan BG, Moore JC, Pendergast IV TH, Piculell B, Ramsby B, Simard SW, Shrestha S, Umbanhowar J, Viechtbauer W. Lawrence Walters27, Gail Wilson28, Peter C. Zee29, and Jason Hoeksema3. (2016). MycoDB: A global database of plant response to mycorrhizal fungi Nature Nature / Scientific Data, 3: 160028.
Paudel, S., Waeber, P.O., Simard, S.W., Innes, J.L., and Nitschke, C.R. (2016). Multiple factors influence plant richness and diversity in the cold and dry boreal forest of southwest Yukon, Canada Springer Plant Ecology: 217: 505-519.
Pickles, B.J., Twieg, B.D., O’Neill, G.A., Mohn, W.W, and Simard, S.W. (2015). Local adaptation in migrated interior Douglas-fir seedlings is mediated by ectomycorrhizae and other soil factors New Phytologist 207: 858–871.
Karst, J., Erbilgin, N., Pec, G.J., Cigan, P.W,, Najar, A., Simard, S.W,, Cahill Jr., J.F. (2015). Ectomycorrhizal fungi mediate indirect effects of a bark beetle outbreak on secondary chemistry and establishment of pine seedlings New Phytologist 208: 904–914.
Baleshta, K.E., Simard, S.W., and Roach, W.J. (2015). Effects of thinning paper birch on conifer productivity and understory plant diversity Scandanavian Journal of Forest Research 30: 699-709.
Song, Y.Y. Simard, S.W., Carroll, A., Mohn, W.W. and Zheng, R.S. (2015). Defoliation of interior Douglas-fir elicits carbon transfer and defense signalling to ponderosa pine neighbors through ectomycorrhizal networks Nature / Sci. Rep. 5, 8495; DOI:10.1038/srep08495 (2015).
Potvin C, Aitken S…Simard SW, and 62 other Canadian Scholars (2015). Acting on climate change: solutions from Canadian scholars UNESCO Chair for dialogues on Sustainability, Trottier Institute for Science and Public Policy, and Sustainable Canada Dialogues.
Simard, S.W. (2015). Conversations in the forest: The roots of natures equanimity SGI Quarterly, 79: 8-9.
Aitken, S.N. and Simard S.W. (2015). Restoring forests: How we can protect the water we drink and the air we breathe Alternatives Journal 41(1): 30-35.
Paudel, S., Nitschke, C.R., Simard, S.W., and Innes, J.L. (2015). Regeneration dynamics of white spruce, trembling aspen and balsam poplar in response to disturbance, climatic and edaphic factors in the cold dry boreal forests of the southwest Yukon, Canada Journal of Forestry 113: 463-474.
Paudel, S., Simard, S.W., Nitschke, C.R. and Innes, J.L. (2015). Climate variation and disturbance regime affect stand composition and structure of the boreal forests in Southwest Yukon of Canada Open Journal of Forestry, 5: 337-352.
Pec GJ, Karst J, Sywenky AN, Cigan PW, Erbilgin N, Simard SW, Cahill, JF Jr (2015). Rapid increases in forest understory diversity and productivity following a mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) outbreak in pine forests PLoS ONE 10(4): e0124691. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0124691
Gorzelak, M., Pickles, B.J., Asay, A.K., Simard, S.W. (2015). Inter-plant communication through mycorrhizal networks mediates complex adaptive behaviour in plant communities. Annals of Botany Plants 7: plv050.
Roach, W.J., Simard, S.W. and Sachs, D.L. (2015). Evidence against planting lodgepole pine monocultures in cedar-hemlock forests in southern British Columbia Forestry 88: 345-358.
Beiler, K.J., Simard, S.W. and Durall, D.M. (2015). Topology of Rhizopogon spp. mycorrhizal meta-networks in xeric and mesic old-growth interior Douglas-fir forests Journal of Ecology, 103(3): 616-628.
Simard, S.W., Asay, A.K., Beiler, K.J., Bingham, M.A., Deslippe, J.R., He, X., Philip, L.J., Song, Y., Teste, F.P. (2015). Resource transfer between plants through ectomycorrhizal networks – In: Mycorrhizal Networks. Edited by T. R. Horton. Springer, Netherlands. Ecological Studies 224, pp. 133-176. ISBN 978-94-017-7394-2.
King, C., Dordel, J., Krzic, M., and Simard, S.W. (2014). Integrating mobile-based learning into post-secondary education: using a mobile gaming application to enhance a forest ecology course. Journal of Natural Resources & Life Sciences Education, 43 (1): 117-125. doi:10.4195/nse2014.02.0004
Barker, J.S., Simard, S.W., and Jones, M.D. (2014). Clearcutting and wildfire have comparable effects on growth of directly seeded interior Douglas-fir Forest Ecology & Management, 331: 188-195.
Treu, R., Karst, J., Randall, M., Pec, G.J., Cigan, P., Simard, S.W., Cooke, J., Erbilgin, N., and Cahill Jr., J.F. (2014). Decline of ectomycorrhizal fungi following mountain pine beetle infestation Ecology, 95:1096–1103.
Filotas, E., Parrott, L., Burton, P.J., Chazdon, R.L., Coates, K.D., Coll, L., Haeussler, S., Martin, K., Nocentini, S., Puettmann, K.J., Putz, F.E., Simard, S.W., and Messier, C. (2014). Viewing forests through the lens of complex systems science Ecosphere 5:art1
Barker, J.S., Simard, S.W., Jones, M.D., and Durall, D.M. (2013). Ectomycorrhizal fungal community assembly on regenerating Douglas-fir after wildfire and clearcut harvesting Oecologia, 172: 1179-1189.
Bingham, M.A., and Simard, S.W. (2013). Seedling genetics and life history outweigh mycorrhizal network potential to improve conifer regeneration under drought Forest Ecology & Management, 287: 132-139.
Dordel, J.D., Wilson, J., Norris, A., Lavkulich, L.M., and Simard, S.W. (2013). Talking science: Telling our stories. Policy Options, December 2012 issue.
Pollan, Michael (2013). The intelligent plant: scientists debate a new way of understanding flora The New Yorker, December 23, 2013
Simard, S.W. (2013). Practicing mindful silviculture in our changing climate Silviculture Magazine, Fall 2013: 6-8
Simard, S.W., Martin, K., Vyse, A., and Larson, B. (2013). Meta-networks of fungi, fauna and flora as agents of complex adaptive systems Chapter 7, pages 133-164. In: Managing World Forests as Complex Adaptive Systems: Building Resilience to the Challenge of Global Change. Edited by Puettmann, K, Messier, C, and Coates, KD. Routledge, NY. ISBN 978-0-415-51977. 369pp.
Simard, S.W. (2012). Mycorrhizal networks and seedling establishment in Douglas-fir forests Biocomplexity of Plant–Fungal Interactions, First Edition. Edited by Darlene Southworth. John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Chapter 4, pages 85-107. ISBN-10: 0813815940 | ISBN-13: 978-0813815947 |
Simard, S.W. (2012). Book Review: Requiem for a Species, Why We Resist the Truth about Climate Change, by Clive Hamilton, Publisher: Earthscan (2010) ISBN: 978-1-84971-081-7 (hbk.) / 978-1-84407-766-3 (pbk.). The BC Forest Professional, July/August 2012: 24.
Lewis, K., and Simard, S.W. (2012). Transforming forest management in B.C. Opinion Editorial, Special to the Vancouver Sun, March 11, 2012
Simard, S.W., and Martin, K. (2012). The powerful networks of forests Friends of Clayquot Sound Newsletter, Summer: 6
Simard SW (2012). Free-growing: caught in a modern Kodak moment The BC Forest Professional, September/October: 12-14.
Bingham, M.A., and Simard, S.W. (2012). Mycorrhizal networks affect ectomycorrhizal fungal community similarity between conspecific trees and seedlings Mycorrhiza, 22: 317–326.
Deslippe, J.R., Hartmann, M., Simard, S.W., and Mohn, W.W. (2012). Long-term warming alters the composition of Arctic soil microbial communities. FEMS Microbiology Ecology, 82: 303-315.
Bingham, M.A., and Simard, S.W. (2012). Ectomycorrhizal networks of old Pseudotsuga menziesii var. glauca trees facilitate establishment of conspecific seedlings under drought. Ecosystems, 15: 188-199.
Simard, S.W., Beiler, K.J., Bingham, M.A., Deslippe. J.R., Philip, L.J., and Teste, F.P. (2012). Mycorrhizal networks: mechanisms, ecology and modelling. Invited Review. Fungal Biology Reviews, 26: 39-60.
Beiler, K.J., Simard, S.W., Lemay, V., and Durall, D.M. (2012). Vertical partitioning between sister species of Rhizopogon fungi on mesic and xeric sites in an interior Douglas-fir forest Molecular Ecology, 21: 6163-6174.
Henry GHR, Harper KA, Chen W, Deslippe JR, Grant RF, Lafleur PM, Lévesque E, Siciliano SD, Simard SW (2012). Effects of observed and experimental climate change on terrestrial ecosystems in northern Canada: results from the Canadian IPY program. Climatic Change, 115: 207-234.
Deslippe, J.R., and Simard, S.W. (2011). Below-ground carbon transfer among Betula nana may increase with warming in Arctic tundra New Phytologist, 192(3): 689-698.
Bingham, M.A., and Simard, S.W. (2011). Do mycorrhizal network benefits to survival and growth of interior Douglas-fir seedlings increase with soil moisture stress? Ecology and Evolution, 3(1): 306-316.
Dordel, J., Seely, B., and Simard, S.W. (2011). Relationships between simulated water stress and mortality and growth rates in underplanted Toona ciliata Roem. in subtropical Argentinean plantations. Ecological Modelling, 222: 3226-3235.
Philip LJ, Simard SW, Jones MD (2011). Pathways for belowground carbon transfer between paper birch and Douglas-fir seedlings Plant Ecology & Diversity, 3: 221-233.
Dordel, J., Simard, S.W., Bauhus, J., Guy, R.D., Prescott, C., Seely, B., Pojas, L.J. (2011). Effects of nurse-crop species and density on nutrient and water availability to underplanted T. ciliata in north-eastern Argentina Canadian Journal of Forest Research 41:1754-1768.
Deslippe, J.R., Hartmann, M., Mohn, W.W. and Simard, S.W. (2011). Long-term experimental manipulation of climate alters the ectomycorrhizal community of Betula nana in Arctic tundra Global Change Biology, 17: 1625–1636.
Strivelli, R.A., Krzic, M., Crowley, C., Dyanatkar, S., Bomke, A.W., Simard, S.W. and Jakoy, A. (2011). Development of a web-based teaching tool Illustrating land use impacts to soil formation and quality Journal of Natural Resources & Life Sciences Education, 40(1): 215-223.
Simard, S.W., and Lewis, K. (2011). New policies needed to save our forests Opinion Editorial, Special to the Vancouver Sun, April 8, 2011
Simard, S.W. (2011). No time to waste: forest conservation management is essential for climate change mitigation In: Wilson, B., Holt, R., Williams, D., Krishnaswamy, A., and Morris, J. (eds)., Columbia Mountains Institute of Applied Ecology. “Carbon Management in BC Ecosystems” conference held on June 15-16, 2011, at Nelson, British Columbia, Canada. Chapter 15, pages 58-65.
Simard, S.W. (Ed.) (2010). Climate Change and Variability Sciyo, Available from: 24 Chapters, 486 pp. ISBN: 978-953-307-144-2
Simard, S.W. and Austin, M.E. (2010). The role of mycorrhizas in forest soil stability with climate change. Sciyo, Available from: Chapter 15, pp 275-302. Climate Change and Variability, Suzanne Simard (Ed.), ISBN: 978-953-307-144-2
Teste FP, Simard SW, Durall DM, Guy R, Berch SM (2010). Net carbon transfer occurs under soil disturbance between Pseudotsuga menziesii var. glauca seedlings in the field Journal of Ecology, 98: 429-439
Simard, S.W. (2010). Why research matters to the forest systems of BC Branchlines, 20: 4-5.
Jones MD, Twieg B, Ward V, Barker J, Durall DM, Simard SW (2010). Functional complementarity of Douglas-fir ectomycorrhizas for extracellularenzyme activity after wildfire or clearcut logging Functional Ecology, 4: 1139-1151.
Mather, W.J., Simard, S.W., Heineman, J.L, Sachs, D.L. (2010). Decline of young lodgepole pine in southern interior British Columbia Forestry Chronicle, 86: 484-497.
Heineman, J.L., Sachs, D.L., Simard, S.W. and Mather, W.J. (2010). Climate and site characteristics affect juvenile trembling aspen development in conifer plantations across southern British Columbia Forest Ecology & Management, 260: 1975–1984.
Zhao Y, Krzic M, Bulmer CE, Schmidt MG, Simard SW. (2010). Relative bulk density as a measure of compaction and its influence on tree height growth Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 40: 1724-1735.
Dordel J, Simard SW, Bauhus J, Seely B, Pozas LJ, Prescott CE, Hampel H. (2010). Trade-offs among establishment success, stem morphology and productivity of underplanted Toona ciliata: effects of nurse-species and thinning density Forest Ecology and Management, 259: 1846-1855.
Heineman JL, Sachs DL, Mather WJ, Simard SW (2010). Investigating the influence of climate, site, location, and treatment factors on damage to young lodgepole pine in southern British Columbia Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 40: 1109-1127.
Beiler KJ, Durall DM, Simard SW, Maxwell SA, Kretzer AM (2010). Mapping the wood-wide web: mycorrhizal networks link multiple Douglas-fir cohorts New Phytologist, 185: 543-553.
Simard, S.W., Mather, W.J., Heineman, J.L., and Sachs, D.L. (2010). Too much of a good thing? Planted lodgepole pine at risk of decline in British Columbia Silviculture Magazine, Winter 2010: 26-29.
Kranabetter JM, Simard SW, Coates KD, Guy R. (2010). Species patterns in foliar nitrogen concentration, nitrogen content and 13C abundance for understory saplings across light gradients Plant Soil 327:389-401
Heineman JL, Simard SW, Sachs DL, Mather WJ (2009). Trembling aspen removal effects on lodgepole pine in southern interior British Columbia: 10 year results Western Journal of Applied Forestry, 24: 17-23.
Teste FP, Simard SW, Durall DM (2009). Role of mycorrhizal networks and tree proximity in ectomycorrhizal colonization of planted seedlings. Fungal Ecology, 2(1): 21-30.
Twieg B, Durall DM, Simard SW, and Jones MD. (2009). Influence of soil nutrients on ectomycorrhizal communities in a chronosequence of mixed temperate forests Mycorrhiza, 19(5): 305-316.
Vyse A, Simard SW (2009). Broadleaves in the Interior of British Columbia: their extent, use, management and prospects for investment in genetic conservation and improvement. Forestry Chronicle, 85: 528-537.
Teste FP, Simard SW, Durall DM, Guy RD, Jones MD, Schoonmaker AL (2009). Access to mycorrhizal networks and tree roots: importance for seedling survival & resource transfer Ecology, 90: 2808-2822
Kazantseva O, Bingham MA, Simard SW, Berch SM (2009). Effects of growth medium, nutrients, water and aeration on mycorrhization and biomass allocation of greenhouse-grown interior Douglas-fir seedlings Mycorrhiza, 20: 51-66.
Simard SW (2009). Mycorrhizal networks and complex systems: contributions of soil ecology science to managing climate change effects in forested ecosystems Canadian Journal of Soil Science, 89(4): 369-382.
Simard, SW (2009). The foundational role of mycorrhizal networks in self-organization of interior Douglas-fir forests Forest Ecology and Management, 258S: S95–S107.
Simard SW. (2009). Response diversity of mycorrhizas in forest succession following disturbance In: C. Azcon-Aguilar, J.M. Barea, S. Gianinazzi, and V. Gianinazzi-Pearson. Mycorrhizas: functional processes and ecological impacts. Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg. ISBN 978-3-540-87977-0. Chapter 13, pp. 187-206.
Vyse A, Simard SW (2008). Broadleaved species in the southern interior of British Columbia Forest Genetics Council of BC, Victoria, BC. BC F67 D:B76 2008, Bib. No. 443323, 44 pages.
Dordel, J., M.C. Feller, and S.W. Simard (2008). Effects of mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins)infestations on forest stand structure in the southern Canadian Rocky Mountains Forest Ecology and Management, 255: 3563-3570.
Teste FP, and Simard SW. (2008). Mycorrhizal networks and distance from mature trees alter patterns of competition and facilitation in dry Douglas-fir forests Oecologia, 158: 193-203.
Philip LJ, and Simard SW. (2008). Minimum pulses of stable and radioactive carbon isotopes to detect belowground carbon transfer between plants. Plant and Soil, 308: 23-35.
Kranabetter JM, and Simard SW. (2008). Inverse relationship between understory light and foliar nitrogen along productivity gradients of boreal forests. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 38: 2487–2496.
Heineman, J.L., Simard, S.W., Sachs, D.L., Mather, W.J. (2007). Ten year responses of Engelmann spruce and a high elevation Ericaceous shrub community to manual cutting treatments in southern interior British Columbia Forest Ecology and Management, 248: 153-162.
Schoonmaker, A.L., Teste, F.P., Simard, S.W., Guy, R.D. (2007). Tree proximity, soil pathways and common mycorrhizal networks: their influence on utilization of redistributed water by understory seedlings Oecologia 154:455-466
Twieg, B.D., Durall, D.M., Simard, S.W. (2007). Ectomycorrhizal fungal succession in mixed temperate forests New Phytologist, 176: 437-447.
Durall, D.M., Gamiet, S., Simard, S.W., Kudrna, L., and Sakakibara, S.M. (2006). Effects of clearcut logging and tree species composition on the diversity and community composition of epigeous fruit bodies formed by ectomycorrhizal fungi Canadian Journal of Botany, 84: 966-980.
Vyse, A., Ferguson, C., Simard, S.W., Kano, T., and Puttonen, P. (2006). Growth of Douglas-fir, lodgepole pine, and ponderosa pine seedlings underplanted in a partially-cut, dry Douglas-fir stand in south-central British Columbia Forestry Chronicle 82: 723-732.
Simard, S.W., Radosevich, S.R., Sachs, D.L., Hagerman, S.M. (2006). Evidence for competition/facilitation trade-offs: effects of Sitka alder density on pine regeneration and soil productivity Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 36: 1286-1298.
Simard, S.W., and Vyse, A. (2006). Trade-offs between competition and facilitation: A case study of vegetation management in the interior cedar-hemlock forests of southern British Columbia Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 36: 2486-2496.
Teste, F.P., Karst, J., Jones, M.D., Simard, S.W., and Durall, D.M. (2006). Methods to control ectomycorrhizal colonization: effectiveness of chemical and physical barriers Mycorrhiza, 17: 51-65.
Sellosse, M.-A., Richard, F., He, X., and Simard, S.W. (2006). Mycorrhizal networks: les liaisons dangeureuses? Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 21: 621-628.
Johnson NC, Hoeksema J, Abbott L, Bever J, Chaudhary VB, Gehring C, Klironomos J, Koide R, Miller RM, Moore J, Moutoglis P, Schwartz M, Simard SW, Swenson W, Umbanhowar J, Wilson G, and Zabinski C. (2006). From Lilliput to Brobdingnag: extending models of mycorrhizal function across scales Bioscience, 56(11): 889-900.
Haeussler S, Meidinger D, MacKinnon A, O’Neill G, Simard SW. (2006). Managing British Columbia’s forest and rangeland ecosystems to achieve ecological resilience. Report prepared for the BC Chief Forester’s Future Forest Ecosystems Initiative. Research Branch, BC Ministry of Forests and Range, Victoria, BC.
Simard, S.W. (2005). Changes in ecosystem processes and management. Faculty of Forestry, University of British Columbia. Branchlines, 16(3): 4-5
Simard, S.W., Hagerman, S.M., Sachs, D.L., Heineman, J.L., and Mather, W.J. (2005). Conifer growth, Armillaria ostoyae root disease and plant diversity responses to broadleaf competition reduction in temperate mixed forests of southern interior British Columbia. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 35: 843-859.
Heineman, J.L., Simard, S.W., Sachs, D.L., and Mather, W.J. (2005). Chemical, grazing, and manual cutting treatments in mixed herb-shrub communities have no effect on interior spruce survival or growth in southern interior British Columbia Forest Ecology and Management, 205: 359-374.
Simard, S.W., and Zimonick, B.J. (2005). Neighborhood size effects on mortality, growth and crown morphology of paper birch Forest Ecology and Management, 214: 251-269.
Baleshta, K.E., S.W. Simard, R.D. Guy and C.P. Chanway (2005). Reducing paper birch density increases Douglas-fir growth and Armillaria root disease incidence in southern interior British Columbia Forest Ecology and Management, 208: 1-13.
Delong, D.L., Simard, S.W., Comeau, P.G., Dykstra, P.R., and Mitchell, S.J. (2005). Survival and growth responses of planted seedlings in root disease infected partial cuts in the Interior Cedar Hemlock zone of southeastern British Columbia. Forest Ecology and Management, 206: 365-379.
Simard, S.W., Blenner-Hassett, T., and Cameron, I.R. (2004). Precommercial thinning effects on growth, yield and mortality in even-aged paper birch stands in British Columbia. Forest Ecology and Management, 190: 163-178.
Simard, S.W., Sachs, D.L. (2004). Assessment of interspecific competition using relative height and distance indices in an age sequence of seral interior cedar-hemlock forests in British Columbia. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 34: 1228-1240.
Simard, S.W., Heineman, J.L., Hagerman, S.M., Mather, W.J., and Sachs, D.L. (2004). Manual cutting of Sitka alder communities: effects on conifer growth and plant community structure. Western Journal of Applied Forestry, 19(4): 277-287.
Simard, S.W., Durall, D.M. (2004). Mycorrhizal networks: a review of their extent, function and importance. Canadian Journal of Botany, 82(8): 1140-1165.
Simard, S.W., Sachs, D.L.,Vyse, A., Blevins, L.L. (2004). Paper birch competitive effects vary with conifer tree species and stand age in interior British Columbia forests: implications for reforestation policy and practice. Forest Ecology and Management, 198: 55-74.
Prescott, C.E., Vesterdal, L., Preston, C.M., and Simard, S.W. (2004). Influence of initial chemistry on decomposition of foliar litter in contrasting forest types in British Columbia. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 34: 1714-1729.
Sachs, D.L., Heineman, J.L., Mather, W.J., Simard, S.W., Curran, M.P., Morrison, I.R., Crane, C. (2004). Expert System for Site Preparation and Vegetation Management in Southern Interior British Columbia.
Simard, S.W., Jones, M.D., Durall, D.M., Hope, G.D., Stathers, R.J., Sorensen, N.S., Zimonick, B.J. (2003). Chemical and mechanical site preparation: effects on Pinus contorta growth, physiology, and microsite quality on steep forest sites in British Columbia. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 33: 1495-1515.
Heineman, J.L., Hope, G.D., Simard, S.W., Vyse, A., Lloyd, D.L., Miege, D.J. (2003). The effects of site preparation and harvesting practices on planted seedling productivity and microenvironment in southern interior dry, grassy IDF forests. B.C. Min. For., Victoria, B.C. Tech. Rep. 009.
Heineman, J.L., Simard, S.W., and Mather, W.J. (2002). Natural regeneration of small patch cuts in a southern interior ICH forest. B.C. Min. For., Victoria, B.C. Working Paper 64.
Simard, S.W. (2002). Competition in Interior Cedar-Hemlock conifer-broadleaf mixtures. In: Conference Proceedings, Mountain Forests: Conservation and Management, IUFRO Conference, July 28-Aug. 1, 2003, Silver Star, B.C. B.C. Ministry of Forests. Abstract
DeLong, R., Lewis, K.J., Simard, S.W., Gibson, S. (2002). Fluorescent pseudomonad population sizes baited from soils under pure birch, pure Douglas-fir and mixed forest stands and their antagonism toward Armillaria ostoyae in vitro. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 32: 2146-2159.
Sakakibara, S.M., Jones, M.D., Gillespie, M., Hagerman, S.H., Forrest, M.E., Simard, S.W., Durall, D.M. (2002). A comparison of ectomycorrhiza identification based on morphotyping and PCR-RFLP analysis. Mycological Research, 106: 868-878.
Simard, S.W., Jones, M.D., and Durall, D.M. (2002). Carbon and nutrient fluxes within and between mycorrhizal plants. Springer In: M. van der Heijden and I. Sanders. Mycorrhizal Ecology. Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg. Ecological Studies, Vol. 157: 33-61.
Wiensczyk, A., Gamiet, S., Durall, D., Jones, M., and Simard, S.W. (2002). Ectomycorrhizae and forestry in British Columbia: A summary of current research and conservation strategies. British Columbia Journal of Ecosystems and Management, 2(1): 1-19.
Forge, T.A. and Simard, S.W. (2001). Structure of nematode communities in forest soils of southern British Columbia: Effects of clearcut harvesting and fertilization. Biology and Fertility of Soils, 34: 170-178.
Forge, T.A. and Simard, S.W. (2001). Short term effects of nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizers on nitrogen mineralization and trophic structure of the soil ecosystem in clearcuts in the southern interior of British Columbia. Canadian Journal of Soil Science, 81: 11-20.
Simard, S.W., Heineman, J.L., Mather, W.J., Sachs, D.L., and Vyse, A. (2001). Brushing effects on conifers and plant communities in the southern interior of British Columbia: Summary of PROBE results 1991-2000. B.C. Min. For., Victoria, B.C. Extension Note 58. 26 pp.
Forge, T.A., Muehlchen, A.M., and Simard, S.W. (2001). Influences of clearcut harvesting and fertilization on structure and function of the soil foodweb in ICH forests of southern interior British Columbia. B.C. Min. For., Victoria, B.C. Extension Note 59. 8 pp.
Simard, S.W., Heineman, J.L., Mather, W.J., Sachs, D.L., and Vyse, A. (2001). Effects of operational brushing on conifers and plant communities in the southern interior of British Columbia: results from PROBE 1991-2000. B.C. Min. For., Victoria, B.C. Land Manage. Handb. No. 48. 398 pp.
Forge, T.A. and Simard, S.W. (2000). Trophic structure of nematode communities, microbial biomass, and nitrogen mineralization in soils of forests and clearcuts in the southern interior of British Columbia. Canadian Journal of Soil Science, 80: 401-410.
Simard, S.W. and Hannam, K.D. (2000). Effects of thinning overstory paper birch on survival and growth of interior spruce in British Columbia: implications for reforestation policy and biodiversity. Forest Ecology and Management, 129: 237-251.
Simard, S.W. (1999). Below-ground connections among trees: implications for enhanced silviculture and restoration. In: Egan, B. (ed.), Helping the land heal: ecological restoration in British Columbia. B.C. Environmental Network Educational Foundation, Victoria, B.C. pp. 179-184.
Simard, S.W., Jones, M.D., Durall, D.M., Sorensen, N.S. (1998). Regeneration of a dry, grassy site in the Interior Douglas-fir zone. In: Vyse, A., Hollstedt, C., Huggard, D. (eds.). Managing the dry Douglas-fir forests of the southern interior: workshop proceedings, April 29-30, 1997, Kamloops, British Columbia. Res. Br., B.C. Ministry of Forests, Victoria, B.C. Work. Pap. 34: 62-72.
Simard, S.W., Heineman, J.L., and Youwe, P. (1998). Effects of chemical and manual brushing on conifer seedlings, plant communities and range forage in the southern interior of British Columbia: nine year response. B.C. Min. For., Victoria, B.C. Land Management Report 45.
Jones, M.D., Durall, D.M., Harniman, S.M., Classen, D.C., and Simard, S.W. (1998). Ectomycorrhizal diversity of paper birch and Douglas-fir seedlings grown in single species and mixed plots in the ICH zone of southern British Columbia. B.C. Min. For., Victoria, B.C. Extension Note 19.
Forge, T.A., Simard, S.W., Welke, S. (1997). Influences of paper birch (Betula papyrifera) on microbial communities in soil and their possible implications for Armillaria root disease of conifers. In: Sturrock, R. (ed.), Proceedings of the 45th Western International Forest Disease Work Conference, September 15-19, 1997, Prince George, B.C. WIDFWC 1997, p. 60.
Delong, R.D., Lewis, K.J., Simard, S.W. (1997). A comparison of rhizosphere bacterial populations in conifer, broadleaf, and mixedwood stands: could pseudomonads play a role in reducing incidence of Armillaria root rot? In: Sturrock, R. (ed.), Proceedings of the 45th Western International Forest Disease Work Conference, September 15-19, 1997, Prince George, B.C. WIFDWC 1997, p. 60.
Simard, S.W. (1997). Intensive management of young mixed forests: effects on forest health. In: Sturrock, R. (ed.), Proceedings of the 45th Western International Forest Disease Work Conference, September 15-19, 1997, Prince George, B.C. WIFDWC 1997, 48-54.
Biring, B.S., Comeau, P.G., Boateng, J.O., and Simard, S.W. (1997). EXPLORE: Experimental design protocol for long-term operational response evaluations. B.C. Min. For., Victoria, B.C. Land Manage. Handbook.
Peterson, E.B., Peterson, N.M., Simard, S.W., and Wang, J.R. (1997). Paper birch managers’ handbook for British Columbia. B.C. Min. For. and For. Can., Victoria, B.C. FRDA II Report. 133 p.
Simard, S.W., Perry, D.A., Jones, M.D., Myrold, D.D., Durall, D.M., and Molina, R. (1997). Net transfer of carbon between tree species with shared ectomycorrhizal fungi. Nature, 388: 579-582.
Simard, S.W., Molina, R., Smith, J.E., Perry, D.A., and Jones, M.D. (1997). Shared compatibility of ectomycorrhizae on Pseudotsuga menziesii and Betula papyrifera seedlings grown in mixture in soils from southern British Columbia. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 27: 331-342.
Simard, S.W., Perry, D.A., Smith, J.E., and Molina, R. (1997). Effects of soil trenching on occurrence of ectomycorrhizae on Pseudotsuga menziesii seedlings grown in mature forests of Betula papyrifera and Pseudotsuga menziesii. The New Phytologist, 136: 327-340.
Simard, S.W., Durall, D.M., and Jones, M.D. (1997). Carbon allocation and carbon transfer between Betula papyrifera and Pseudotsuga menziesii seedlings using a 13C pulse-labeling method. Plant and Soil, 191: 41-55.
Simard, S.W., Jones, M.D., Durall, D.M., Perry, D.A., Myrold, D.D., and Molina R. (1997). Reciprocal transfer of carbon isotopes between ectomycorrhizal Betula papyrifera and Pseudotsuga menziesii. The New Phytologist, 137: 529-542.
Jones, M.D., Durall, D.M., Harniman, S.M.K., Classen, D.C., and Simard, S.W. (1997). Ectomycorrhizal diversity on Betula papyrifera and Pseudotsuga menziesii seedlings grown in the greenhouse or outplanted in single-species and mixed plots in southern British Columbia. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 27: 1872-1889.
Wang, J.R., Zhong, A.L., Simard, S.W., Kimmins, J.P. (1996). Aboveground biomass and nutrient accumulation in an age sequence of paper birch (Betula papyrifera) stands in the Interior Cedar Hemlock zone, British Columbia. Forest Ecology and Management, 83: 27-38.
Simard, S.W. (1996). Design of a birch/conifer mixture study in the southern interior of British Columbia. In: Comeau, P.G., Thomas, K.D. (eds.), Designing Mixedwood Experiments: Workshop Proceedings, March 2, 1995, Richmond, B.C. Res. Br., B.C. Ministry of Forests, Victoria, B.C. Work. Pap. 20: 8-11.
Simard, S.W. (1996). Mixtures of paper birch and conifers: an ecological balancing act. In: Comeau, P.G., Thomas, K.D. (eds.), Silviculture of Temperate and Boreal Broadleaved-Conifer Species: Proceedings of a Workshop held Feb. 28-March 1, 1995, Richmond, B.C. B.C. Ministry of Forests Land Manage. Handb. 36: 15-21.
Simard, S.W. (1996). Ecological and silvicultural characteristics of paper birch in the southern interior of British Columbia. In: Comeau, P.G., Harper, G.J., Blache, M.P., Boateng, J.L., Thomas, K.D. (edds.), Ecology and Management of British Columbia Hardwoods: Workshop Proceedings, Dec. 1-2, 1993, Richmond, B.C. B.C. Ministry of Forests, Victoria, B.C. FRDA Report No. 255: 157-165.
Simard, S.W., Perry, D.A., Jones, M.D., Molina, R., Durall, D.M. (1996). Ecological significance of carbon transfer in ectomycorrhizal tree species mixtures. In: Szaro, T.M., Bruns, T.D. (eds.), First International Conference on Mycorrhizae, Aug. 4-9, 1996, Univ. Calif. Berkeley. ICOM1, Abstracts, p. 110.
Simard, S.W., Heineman, J.E. (1996). Nine year response of Douglas-fir and the Mixed Hardwood-Shrub complex to chemical and manual release treatments on an ICHmw2 site near Salmon Arm B.C. Ministry of Forests and Forestry Canada FRDA Report 257.
Simard, S.W., Heineman, J.E. (1996). Nine year response of Engelmann spruce and the Willow complex to chemical and manual release treatments on an ICHmw2 site near Vernon B.C. Ministry of Forests and Forestry Canada. FRDA Report 258.
Simard, S.W., Heineman, J.E. (1996). Nine year response of lodgepole pine and the Dry Alder complex to chemical and manual release treatments on an ICHmk1 site near Kelowna. B.C. Ministry of Forests and Forestry Canada FRDA Report 259.
Simard, S.W. (1995). Shading influences net carbon transfer among ectomycorrhizal tree seedlings in the field. In: Topa, M.A., Rygiewicz, P.T., Cumming, J.R. (eds.), Dynamics of Physiological Processes in Woody Roots, October 8-11, Ithaca, NY. Boyce Institute for Plant Research, U.S. E.P.A., IUFRO Root Physiology and Symbiosis Working Party. Booklet of Abstracts.
Simard, S.W. (1995). PROBE: Vegetation management monitoring in the southern interior of B.C. Northern Interior Vegetation Management Association, Annual General Meeting, Jan. 18, 1995, Williams Lake, B.C. NIVMA AGM 1995.
Wang, J.R., Simard, S.W., Kimmins, J.P. (1995). Physiological responses of paper birch to thinning in British Columbia Forest Ecology and Management, 73: 177-184.
Simard, S.W., Vyse, A. (1994). Paper birch: weed or crop tree in the Interior Cedar-Hemlock forests of southern British Columbia. In: Baumgartner, D.M., Lotan, J.E., Tonn, J.R. (eds.), Symposium proceedings of Interior Cedar-Hemlock-White Pine Forests: Ecology and Management, March 2-4, 1993, Spokane, Washington. Dept. Natural Resource Sciences, Washington State University, Pullman, WA. pp. 309-316.
Simard, S.W. (1993). PROBE: Protocol for operational brushing evaluations (first approximation). B.C. Ministry of Forests. Land Management Report 86.
Simard, S.W., Vyse, A. (1992). Ecology and management of paper birch and black cottonwood. B.C. Ministry of Forests. Land Management Report 75.
Simard, S.W. (1990). A retrospective study of competition between paper birch and planted Douglas-fir. Forestry Canada and B.C. Ministry of Forests. FRDA Report 147.
Simard, S.W. (1990). Competition between Sitka alder and lodgepole pine in the Montane Spruce zone in the southern interior of British Columbia. Forestry Canada and B.C. Ministry of Forests FRDA Report 150.
Simard, S.W., Nicholson, A. (1990). Balancing the positive and negative effects of non-crop plants on conifers: pinegrass, fireweed, sitka alder and paper birch. In: Hamilton, E. (ed.), Vegetation Management: An Integrated Approach, Proceedings of the Fourth Annual Vegetation Management Workshop, Nov. 14-16, 1989. B.C. Ministry of Forests, Victoria, B.C. FRDA Report No. 109: 45-48.


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