Areas of research include:

  • Forest ecology
  • Plant – soil microbial interactions
  • Plant-plant interactions
  • Ectomycorrhizae
  • Mycorrhizal networks
  • Forest stand dynamics (regeneration, growth, mortality)
  • Forest disturbances
  • Complex adaptive systems and ecological resilience
  • Global change

 


Projects

TerreWEB: Terrestrial Research on Ecosystems & World-wide Education & Broadcast

NSERC CREATE

Carbon cycling by forest soil microbial communities in a time of climate change

NSERC SPG (Mohn, Simard, Hallam)

Pine regeneration following mountain pine beetle attack: facilitation by mycorrhizal fungi

NSERC SPG (Cahill, Simard, Erbilgin, Cooke)

The role of mycorrhizae and mycorrhizal networks in tree species migrations with climate change and disturbance

NSERC DG

The mycorrhizal ecology laboratory – linking belowground with aboveground indicators of forest sustainability

CFI/BCKDF


Professional Affiliations

Ecological Society of America ESA
National Center for Ecosystem Analysis and Synthesis NCEAS

Awards

Killam Teaching Award , 2006

Current Graduate Students

Amanda Asay, PhD
Does kin selection play a facilitative role in regeneration of forests under climate stress?
Julia Chandler, PhD
Ecosystem Response to Disturbance:  Thresholds for Biodiversity and Indicators of Stability
Shannon Guichon, PhD
ycorrhizal fungi:  unlocking their ecology and role for the establishment and growth performance of different conifer species in nutrient-poor coastal ecosystems
Federico Osorio, PhD
The distribution and function of high elevation plant ecosystems and their response to climatic variability
Matt Zustovic, MSc
Does forest canopy gap size affect interior Douglas-fir regeneration potential through environmental properties?
Deon Louw, MSc
Examining interspecific interactions in mixed stands of Douglas fir and paper birch
Julia Maddison, MSc
Investigating defense-related information transfer between Douglas-fir via ectomycorrhizal networks

Post Doctoral Fellows and Research Assistants

Dr. Brian J. Pickles
Dr. Preston Cumming, TerreWEB
Dr. Michelle Jackson, TerreWEB

Current Courses

Winter 2013

FRST201 Forest Ecology Sections

The structure and function of forest ecosystems, including: energetics; productivity; nutrient, carbon and water cycling; soils; the physical environment; population and community ecology; disturbance ecology; ecological succession; biological diversity and ecological resilience.

 

Selected Publications


Barker, J.S., Simard, S.W., and Jones, M.D. (2014). Clearcutting and wildfire have comparable effects on growth of directly seeded interior Douglas-fir Forest Ecology & Management, submitted.
Treu, R., Karst, J., Randall, M., Pec, G.J., Cigan, P., Simard, S.W., Cooke, J., Erbilgin, N., and Cahill Jr., J.F. (2014). Decline of ectomycorrhizal fungi following mountain pine beetle infestation Ecology, in press
Mather, W.J., and Simard, S.W. (2014). Evidence against planting lodgepole pine monocultures in cedar-hemlock forests in southern British Columbia Forestry Chronicle
Beiler, K.J., Simard, S.W. and Durall, D.M. (2014). Self-organized complexity of ectomycorrhizal networks in xeric and mesic old-growth interior Douglas-fir forests Journal of Ecology
Simard, S.W., Asay, A.K., Beiler, K.J., Bingham, M.A., Deslippe, J.R., He, X., Philip, L.J., Song, Y., Teste, F.P. (2014). Resource transfer between plants through ectomycorrhizal networks In: Mycorrhizal Networks. Edited by T. R. Horton. Springer, in review.
King, C., Dordel, J., Krzic, M., and Simard, S.W. (2014). Integrating mobile-based learning into post-secondary education: using a mobile gaming application to enhance a forest ecology course. Journal of Natural Resources & Life Sciences Education
Dordel, J.D., Wilson, J., Norris, A., Lavkulich, L.M., and Simard, S.W. (2013). Talking science: Telling our stories. Policy Options, December 2012 issue.
Pollan, Michael (2013). The intelligent plant: Scientists debate a new way of understanding flora The New Yorker, December 23, 2013
Simard, S.W. (2013). Practicing mindful silviculture in our changing climate Silviculture Magazine, Fall 2013: 6-8
Simard, S.W., Martin, K., Vyse, A., and Larson, B. (2013). Meta-networks of fungi, fauna and flora as agents of complex adaptive systems Chapter 7, pages 133-164. In: Managing World Forests as Complex Adaptive Systems: Building Resilience to the Challenge of Global Change. Edited by Puettmann, K, Messier, C, and Coates, KD. Routledge, NY. ISBN 978-0-415-51977. 369pp.
Filotas, E., Parrott, L., Burton, P.J., Chazdon, R.L., Coates, K.D., Coll, L., Haeussler, S., Martin, K., Nocentini, S., Puettmann, K.J., Putz, F.E., Simard, S.W., and Messier, C. (2013). Viewing forests through the lens of complex systems science Ecosphere 5:art1
Barker, J.S., Simard, S.W., Jones, M.D., and Durall, D.M. (2013). Ectomycorrhizal fungal community assembly on regenerating Douglas-fir after wildfire and clearcut harvesting Oecologia, 172: 1179-1189.
Bingham, M.A., and Simard, S.W. (2013). Seedling genetics and life history outweigh mycorrhizal network potential to improve conifer regeneration under drought Forest Ecology & Management, 287: 132-139.
Bingham, M.A., and Simard, S.W. (2012). Mycorrhizal networks affect ectomycorrhizal fungal community similarity between conspecific trees and seedlings Mycorrhiza, 22: 317–326.
Deslippe, J.R., Hartmann, M., Simard, S.W., and Mohn, W.W. (2012). Long-term warming alters the composition of Arctic soil microbial communities. FEMS Microbiology Ecology, 82: 303-315.
Bingham, M.A., and Simard, S.W. (2012). Ectomycorrhizal networks of old Pseudotsuga menziesii var. glauca trees facilitate establishment of conspecific seedlings under drought. Ecosystems, 15: 188-199.
Simard, S.W., Beiler, K.J., Bingham, M.A., Deslippe. J.R., Philip, L.J., and Teste, F.P. (2012). Mycorrhizal networks: mechanisms, ecology and modelling. Invited Review. Fungal Biology Reviews, 26: 39-60.
Beiler, K.J., Simard, S.W., Lemay, V., and Durall, D.M. (2012). Vertical partitioning between sister species of Rhizopogon fungi on mesic and xeric sites in an interior Douglas-fir forest Molecular Ecology, 21: 6163-6174.
Henry GHR, Harper KA, Chen W, Deslippe JR, Grant RF, Lafleur PM, Lévesque E, Siciliano SD, Simard SW (2012). Effects of observed and experimental climate change on terrestrial ecosystems in northern Canada: results from the Canadian IPY program. Climatic Change, 115: 207-234.
Simard, S.W. (2012). Mycorrhizal networks and seedling establishment in Douglas-fir forests Biocomplexity of Plant–Fungal Interactions, First Edition. Edited by Darlene Southworth. John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Chapter 4, pages 85-107. ISBN-10: 0813815940 | ISBN-13: 978-0813815947 |
Simard, S.W. (2012). Book Review: Requiem for a Species, Why We Resist the Truth about Climate Change, by Clive Hamilton, Publisher: Earthscan (2010) ISBN: 978-1-84971-081-7 (hbk.) / 978-1-84407-766-3 (pbk.). The BC Forest Professional, July/August 2012: 24.
Lewis, K., and Simard, S.W. (2012). Transforming forest management in B.C. Opinion Editorial, Special to the Vancouver Sun, March 11, 2012
Simard, S.W., and Martin, K. (2012). The powerful networks of forests Friends of Clayquot Sound Newsletter, Summer: 6
Simard SW (2012). Free-growing: caught in a modern Kodak moment The BC Forest Professional, September/October: 12-14.
Simard, S.W., and Lewis, K. (2011). New policies needed to save our forests Opinion Editorial, Special to the Vancouver Sun, April 8, 2011
Simard, S.W. (2011). No time to waste: forest conservation management is essential for climate change mitigation http://www.cmiae.org/Events/past-events.php#carbon2011 In: Wilson, B., Holt, R., Williams, D., Krishnaswamy, A., and Morris, J. (eds)., Columbia Mountains Institute of Applied Ecology. “Carbon Management in BC Ecosystems” conference held on June 15-16, 2011, at Nelson, British Columbia, Canada. Chapter 15, pages 58-65.
Deslippe, J.R., and Simard, S.W. (2011). Below-ground carbon transfer among Betula nana may increase with warming in Arctic tundra New Phytologist, 192(3): 689-698.
Bingham, M.A., and Simard, S.W. (2011). Do mycorrhizal network benefits to survival and growth of interior Douglas-fir seedlings increase with soil moisture stress? Ecology and Evolution, 3(1): 306-316.
Dordel, J., Seely, B., and Simard, S.W. (2011). Relationships between simulated water stress and mortality and growth rates in underplanted Toona ciliata Roem. in subtropical Argentinean plantations. Ecological Modelling, 222: 3226-3235.
Philip LJ, Simard SW, Jones MD (2011). Pathways for belowground carbon transfer between paper birch and Douglas-fir seedlings Plant Ecology & Diversity, 3: 221-233.
Dordel, J., Simard, S.W., Bauhus, J., Guy, R.D., Prescott, C., Seely, B., Pojas, L.J. (2011). Effects of nurse-crop species and density on nutrient and water availability to underplanted T. ciliata in north-eastern Argentina Canadian Journal of Forest Research 41:1754-1768.
Deslippe, J.R., Hartmann, M., Mohn, W.W. and Simard, S.W. (2011). Long-term experimental manipulation of climate alters the ectomycorrhizal community of Betula nana in Arctic tundra Global Change Biology, 17: 1625–1636.
Strivelli, R.A., Krzic, M., Crowley, C., Dyanatkar, S., Bomke, A.W., Simard, S.W. and Jakoy, A. (2011). Development of a web-based teaching tool Illustrating land use impacts to soil formation and quality Journal of Natural Resources & Life Sciences Education, 40(1): 215-223.
Teste FP, Simard SW, Durall DM, Guy R, Berch SM (2010). Net carbon transfer occurs under soil disturbance between Pseudotsuga menziesii var. glauca seedlings in the field Journal of Ecology, 98: 429-439
Simard, S.W. (2010). Why research matters to the forest systems of BC Branchlines, 20: 4-5.
Jones MD, Twieg B, Ward V, Barker J, Durall DM, Simard SW (2010). Functional complementarity of Douglas-fir ectomycorrhizas for extracellularenzyme activity after wildfire or clearcut logging Functional Ecology, 4: 1139-1151.
Mather, W.J., Simard, S.W., Heineman, J.L, Sachs, D.L. (2010). Decline of young lodgepole pine in southern interior British Columbia Forestry Chronicle, 86: 484-497.
Heineman, J.L., Sachs, D.L., Simard, S.W. and Mather, W.J. (2010). Climate and site characteristics affect juvenile trembling aspen development in conifer plantations across southern British Columbia Forest Ecology & Management, 260: 1975–1984.
Zhao Y, Krzic M, Bulmer CE, Schmidt MG, Simard SW. (2010). Relative bulk density as a measure of compaction and its influence on tree height growth Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 40: 1724-1735.
Dordel J, Simard SW, Bauhus J, Seely B, Pozas LJ, Prescott CE, Hampel H. (2010). Trade-offs among establishment success, stem morphology and productivity of underplanted Toona ciliata: effects of nurse-species and thinning density Forest Ecology and Management, 259: 1846-1855.
Heineman JL, Sachs DL, Mather WJ, Simard SW (2010). Investigating the influence of climate, site, location, and treatment factors on damage to young lodgepole pine in southern British Columbia Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 40: 1109-1127.
Beiler KJ, Durall DM, Simard SW, Maxwell SA, Kretzer AM (2010). Mapping the wood-wide web: mycorrhizal networks link multiple Douglas-fir cohorts New Phytologist, 185: 543-553.
Simard, S.W., Mather, W.J., Heineman, J.L., and Sachs, D.L. (2010). Too much of a good thing? Planted lodgepole pine at risk of decline in British Columbia Silviculture Magazine, Winter 2010: 26-29.
Kranabetter JM, Simard SW, Coates KD, Guy R. (2010). Species patterns in foliar nitrogen concentration, nitrogen content and 13C abundance for understory saplings across light gradients Plant Soil 327:389-401
Simard, S.W. (Ed.) (2010). Climate Change and Variability Sciyo, Available from: http://www.intechopen.com/articles/show/title/the-role-of-mycorrhizas-in-forest-soil-stability-with-climate-change. 24 Chapters, 486 pp. ISBN: 978-953-307-144-2
Simard, S.W. and Austin, M.E. (2010). The role of mycorrhizas in forest soil stability with climate change. Sciyo, Available from: http://www.intechopen.com/articles/show/title/the-role-of-mycorrhizas-in-forest-soil-stability-with-climate-change. Chapter 15, pp 275-302. Climate Change and Variability, Suzanne Simard (Ed.), ISBN: 978-953-307-144-2
Simard SW. (2009). Response diversity of mycorrhizas in forest succession following disturbance In: C. Azcon-Aguilar, J.M. Barea, S. Gianinazzi, and V. Gianinazzi-Pearson. Mycorrhizas: functional processes and ecological impacts. Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg. ISBN 978-3-540-87977-0. Chapter 13, pp. 187-206.
Heineman JL, Simard SW, Sachs DL, Mather WJ (2009). Trembling aspen removal effects on lodgepole pine in southern interior British Columbia: 10 year results Western Journal of Applied Forestry, 24: 17-23.
Teste FP, Simard SW, Durall DM (2009). Role of mycorrhizal networks and tree proximity in ectomycorrhizal colonization of planted seedlings. Fungal Ecology, 2(1): 21-30.
Twieg B, Durall DM, Simard SW, and Jones MD. (2009). Influence of soil nutrients on ectomycorrhizal communities in a chronosequence of mixed temperate forests Mycorrhiza, 19(5): 305-316.
Vyse A, Simard SW (2009). Broadleaves in the Interior of British Columbia: their extent, use, management and prospects for investment in genetic conservation and improvement. Forestry Chronicle, 85: 528-537.
Teste FP, Simard SW, Durall DM, Guy RD, Jones MD, Schoonmaker AL (2009). Access to mycorrhizal networks and tree roots: importance for seedling survival & resource transfer Ecology, 90: 2808-2822
Kazantseva O, Bingham MA, Simard SW, Berch SM (2009). Effects of growth medium, nutrients, water and aeration on mycorrhization and biomass allocation of greenhouse-grown interior Douglas-fir seedlings Mycorrhiza, 20: 51-66.
Simard SW (2009). Mycorrhizal networks and complex systems: contributions of soil ecology science to managing climate change effects in forested ecosystems Canadian Journal of Soil Science, 89(4): 369-382.
Simard, SW (2009). The foundational role of mycorrhizal networks in self-organization of interior Douglas-fir forests Forest Ecology and Management, 258S: S95–S107.
Dordel, J., M.C. Feller, and S.W. Simard (2008). Effects of mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins)infestations on forest stand structure in the southern Canadian Rocky Mountains Forest Ecology and Management, 255: 3563-3570.
Teste FP, and Simard SW. (2008). Mycorrhizal networks and distance from mature trees alter patterns of competition and facilitation in dry Douglas-fir forests Oecologia, 158: 193-203.
Philip LJ, and Simard SW. (2008). Minimum pulses of stable and radioactive carbon isotopes to detect belowground carbon transfer between plants. Plant and Soil, 308: 23-35.
Kranabetter JM, and Simard SW. (2008). Inverse relationship between understory light and foliar nitrogen along productivity gradients of boreal forests. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 38: 2487–2496.
Vyse A, Simard SW (2008). Broadleaved species in the southern interior of British Columbia Forest Genetics Council of BC, Victoria, BC. BC F67 D:B76 2008, Bib. No. 443323, 44 pages.
Heineman, J.L., Simard, S.W., Sachs, D.L., Mather, W.J. (2007). Ten year responses of Engelmann spruce and a high elevation Ericaceous shrub community to manual cutting treatments in southern interior British Columbia Forest Ecology and Management, 248: 153-162.
Schoonmaker, A.L., Teste, F.P., Simard, S.W., Guy, R.D. (2007). Tree proximity, soil pathways and common mycorrhizal networks: their influence on utilization of redistributed water by understory seedlings Oecologia 154:455-466
Twieg, B.D., Durall, D.M., Simard, S.W. (2007). Ectomycorrhizal fungal succession in mixed temperate forests New Phytologist, 176: 437-447.
Durall, D.M., Gamiet, S., Simard, S.W., Kudrna, L., and Sakakibara, S.M. (2006). Effects of clearcut logging and tree species composition on the diversity and community composition of epigeous fruit bodies formed by ectomycorrhizal fungi Canadian Journal of Botany, 84: 966-980.
Vyse, A., Ferguson, C., Simard, S.W., Kano, T., and Puttonen, P. (2006). Growth of Douglas-fir, lodgepole pine, and ponderosa pine seedlings underplanted in a partially-cut, dry Douglas-fir stand in south-central British Columbia Forestry Chronicle 82: 723-732.
Simard, S.W., Radosevich, S.R., Sachs, D.L., Hagerman, S.M. (2006). Evidence for competition/facilitation trade-offs: effects of Sitka alder density on pine regeneration and soil productivity Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 36: 1286-1298.
Simard, S.W., and Vyse, A. (2006). Trade-offs between competition and facilitation: A case study of vegetation management in the interior cedar-hemlock forests of southern British Columbia Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 36: 2486-2496.
Teste, F.P., Karst, J., Jones, M.D., Simard, S.W., and Durall, D.M. (2006). Methods to control ectomycorrhizal colonization: effectiveness of chemical and physical barriers Mycorrhiza, 17: 51-65.
Sellosse, M.-A., Richard, F., He, X., and Simard, S.W. (2006). Mycorrhizal networks: les liaisons dangeureuses? Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 21: 621-628.
Johnson NC, Hoeksema J, Abbott L, Bever J, Chaudhary VB, Gehring C, Klironomos J, Koide R, Miller RM, Moore J, Moutoglis P, Schwartz M, Simard SW, Swenson W, Umbanhowar J, Wilson G, and Zabinski C. (2006). From Lilliput to Brobdingnag: extending models of mycorrhizal function across scales Bioscience, 56(11): 889-900.
Haeussler S, Meidinger D, MacKinnon A, O’Neill G, Simard SW. (2006). Managing British Columbia’s forest and rangeland ecosystems to achieve ecological resilience. Report prepared for the BC Chief Forester’s Future Forest Ecosystems Initiative. Research Branch, BC Ministry of Forests and Range, Victoria, BC.
Simard, S.W. (2005). Changes in ecosystem processes and management. Faculty of Forestry, University of British Columbia. Branchlines, 16(3): 4-5
Simard, S.W., Hagerman, S.M., Sachs, D.L., Heineman, J.L., and Mather, W.J. (2005). Conifer growth, Armillaria ostoyae root disease and plant diversity responses to broadleaf competition reduction in temperate mixed forests of southern interior British Columbia. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 35: 843-859.
Heineman, J.L., Simard, S.W., Sachs, D.L., and Mather, W.J. (2005). Chemical, grazing, and manual cutting treatments in mixed herb-shrub communities have no effect on interior spruce survival or growth in southern interior British Columbia Forest Ecology and Management, 205: 359-374.
Simard, S.W., and Zimonick, B.J. (2005). Neighborhood size effects on mortality, growth and crown morphology of paper birch Forest Ecology and Management, 214: 251-269.
Baleshta, K.E., S.W. Simard, R.D. Guy and C.P. Chanway (2005). Reducing paper birch density increases Douglas-fir growth and Armillaria root disease incidence in southern interior British Columbia Forest Ecology and Management, 208: 1-13.
Delong, D.L., Simard, S.W., Comeau, P.G., Dykstra, P.R., and Mitchell, S.J. (2005). Survival and growth responses of planted seedlings in root disease infected partial cuts in the Interior Cedar Hemlock zone of southeastern British Columbia. Forest Ecology and Management, 206: 365-379.
Simard, S.W., Blenner-Hassett, T., and Cameron, I.R. (2004). Precommercial thinning effects on growth, yield and mortality in even-aged paper birch stands in British Columbia. Forest Ecology and Management, 190: 163-178.
Simard, S.W., Sachs, D.L. (2004). Assessment of interspecific competition using relative height and distance indices in an age sequence of seral interior cedar-hemlock forests in British Columbia. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 34: 1228-1240.
Simard, S.W., Heineman, J.L., Hagerman, S.M., Mather, W.J., and Sachs, D.L. (2004). Manual cutting of Sitka alder communities: effects on conifer growth and plant community structure. Western Journal of Applied Forestry, 19(4): 277-287.
Simard, S.W., Durall, D.M. (2004). Mycorrhizal networks: a review of their extent, function and importance. Canadian Journal of Botany, 82(8): 1140-1165.
Simard, S.W., Sachs, D.L.,Vyse, A., Blevins, L.L. (2004). Paper birch competitive effects vary with conifer tree species and stand age in interior British Columbia forests: implications for reforestation policy and practice. Forest Ecology and Management, 198: 55-74.
Prescott, C.E., Vesterdal, L., Preston, C.M., and Simard, S.W. (2004). Influence of initial chemistry on decomposition of foliar litter in contrasting forest types in British Columbia. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 34: 1714-1729.
Sachs, D.L., Heineman, J.L., Mather, W.J., Simard, S.W., Curran, M.P., Morrison, I.R., Crane, C. (2004). Expert System for Site Preparation and Vegetation Management in Southern Interior British Columbia. http://www.myacquire.com/spvegman/expertsystem/
Simard, S.W., Jones, M.D., Durall, D.M., Hope, G.D., Stathers, R.J., Sorensen, N.S., Zimonick, B.J. (2003). Chemical and mechanical site preparation: effects on Pinus contorta growth, physiology, and microsite quality on steep forest sites in British Columbia. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 33: 1495-1515.
Heineman, J.L., Hope, G.D., Simard, S.W., Vyse, A., Lloyd, D.L., Miege, D.J. (2003). The effects of site preparation and harvesting practices on planted seedling productivity and microenvironment in southern interior dry, grassy IDF forests. B.C. Min. For., Victoria, B.C. Tech. Rep. 009.
Heineman, J.L., Simard, S.W., and Mather, W.J. (2002). Natural regeneration of small patch cuts in a southern interior ICH forest. B.C. Min. For., Victoria, B.C. Working Paper 64.
Simard, S.W. (2002). Competition in Interior Cedar-Hemlock conifer-broadleaf mixtures. In: Conference Proceedings, Mountain Forests: Conservation and Management, IUFRO Conference, July 28-Aug. 1, 2003, Silver Star, B.C. B.C. Ministry of Forests. Abstract
DeLong, R., Lewis, K.J., Simard, S.W., Gibson, S. (2002). Fluorescent pseudomonad population sizes baited from soils under pure birch, pure Douglas-fir and mixed forest stands and their antagonism toward Armillaria ostoyae in vitro. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 32: 2146-2159.
Sakakibara, S.M., Jones, M.D., Gillespie, M., Hagerman, S.H., Forrest, M.E., Simard, S.W., Durall, D.M. (2002). A comparison of ectomycorrhiza identification based on morphotyping and PCR-RFLP analysis. Mycological Research, 106: 868-878.
Simard, S.W., Jones, M.D., and Durall, D.M. (2002). Carbon and nutrient fluxes within and between mycorrhizal plants. Springer In: M. van der Heijden and I. Sanders. Mycorrhizal Ecology. Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg. Ecological Studies, Vol. 157: 33-61.
Wiensczyk, A., Gamiet, S., Durall, D., Jones, M., and Simard, S.W. (2002). Ectomycorrhizae and forestry in British Columbia: A summary of current research and conservation strategies. British Columbia Journal of Ecosystems and Management, 2(1): 1-19.
Forge, T.A. and Simard, S.W. (2001). Structure of nematode communities in forest soils of southern British Columbia: Effects of clearcut harvesting and fertilization. Biology and Fertility of Soils, 34: 170-178.
Forge, T.A. and Simard, S.W. (2001). Short term effects of nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizers on nitrogen mineralization and trophic structure of the soil ecosystem in clearcuts in the southern interior of British Columbia. Canadian Journal of Soil Science, 81: 11-20.
Simard, S.W., Heineman, J.L., Mather, W.J., Sachs, D.L., and Vyse, A. (2001). Brushing effects on conifers and plant communities in the southern interior of British Columbia: Summary of PROBE results 1991-2000. B.C. Min. For., Victoria, B.C. Extension Note 58. 26 pp.
Forge, T.A., Muehlchen, A.M., and Simard, S.W. (2001). Influences of clearcut harvesting and fertilization on structure and function of the soil foodweb in ICH forests of southern interior British Columbia. B.C. Min. For., Victoria, B.C. Extension Note 59. 8 pp.
Simard, S.W., Heineman, J.L., Mather, W.J., Sachs, D.L., and Vyse, A. (2001). Effects of operational brushing on conifers and plant communities in the southern interior of British Columbia: results from PROBE 1991-2000. B.C. Min. For., Victoria, B.C. Land Manage. Handb. No. 48. 398 pp.
Forge, T.A. and Simard, S.W. (2000). Trophic structure of nematode communities, microbial biomass, and nitrogen mineralization in soils of forests and clearcuts in the southern interior of British Columbia. Canadian Journal of Soil Science, 80: 401-410.
Simard, S.W. and Hannam, K.D. (2000). Effects of thinning overstory paper birch on survival and growth of interior spruce in British Columbia: implications for reforestation policy and biodiversity. Forest Ecology and Management, 129: 237-251.
Simard, S.W. (1999). Below-ground connections among trees: implications for enhanced silviculture and restoration. In: Egan, B. (ed.), Helping the land heal: ecological restoration in British Columbia. B.C. Environmental Network Educational Foundation, Victoria, B.C. pp. 179-184.
Simard, S.W., Jones, M.D., Durall, D.M., Sorensen, N.S. (1998). Regeneration of a dry, grassy site in the Interior Douglas-fir zone. In: Vyse, A., Hollstedt, C., Huggard, D. (eds.). Managing the dry Douglas-fir forests of the southern interior: workshop proceedings, April 29-30, 1997, Kamloops, British Columbia. Res. Br., B.C. Ministry of Forests, Victoria, B.C. Work. Pap. 34: 62-72.
Simard, S.W., Heineman, J.L., and Youwe, P. (1998). Effects of chemical and manual brushing on conifer seedlings, plant communities and range forage in the southern interior of British Columbia: nine year response. B.C. Min. For., Victoria, B.C. Land Management Report 45.
Jones, M.D., Durall, D.M., Harniman, S.M., Classen, D.C., and Simard, S.W. (1998). Ectomycorrhizal diversity of paper birch and Douglas-fir seedlings grown in single species and mixed plots in the ICH zone of southern British Columbia. B.C. Min. For., Victoria, B.C. Extension Note 19.
Forge, T.A., Simard, S.W., Welke, S. (1997). Influences of paper birch (Betula papyrifera) on microbial communities in soil and their possible implications for Armillaria root disease of conifers. In: Sturrock, R. (ed.), Proceedings of the 45th Western International Forest Disease Work Conference, September 15-19, 1997, Prince George, B.C. WIDFWC 1997, p. 60.
Delong, R.D., Lewis, K.J., Simard, S.W. (1997). A comparison of rhizosphere bacterial populations in conifer, broadleaf, and mixedwood stands: could pseudomonads play a role in reducing incidence of Armillaria root rot? In: Sturrock, R. (ed.), Proceedings of the 45th Western International Forest Disease Work Conference, September 15-19, 1997, Prince George, B.C. WIFDWC 1997, p. 60.
Simard, S.W. (1997). Intensive management of young mixed forests: effects on forest health. In: Sturrock, R. (ed.), Proceedings of the 45th Western International Forest Disease Work Conference, September 15-19, 1997, Prince George, B.C. WIFDWC 1997, 48-54.
Biring, B.S., Comeau, P.G., Boateng, J.O., and Simard, S.W. (1997). EXPLORE: Experimental design protocol for long-term operational response evaluations. B.C. Min. For., Victoria, B.C. Land Manage. Handbook.
Peterson, E.B., Peterson, N.M., Simard, S.W., and Wang, J.R. (1997). Paper birch managers’ handbook for British Columbia. B.C. Min. For. and For. Can., Victoria, B.C. FRDA II Report. 133 p.
Simard, S.W., Perry, D.A., Jones, M.D., Myrold, D.D., Durall, D.M., and Molina, R. (1997). Net transfer of carbon between tree species with shared ectomycorrhizal fungi. Nature, 388: 579-582.
Simard, S.W., Molina, R., Smith, J.E., Perry, D.A., and Jones, M.D. (1997). Shared compatibility of ectomycorrhizae on Pseudotsuga menziesii and Betula papyrifera seedlings grown in mixture in soils from southern British Columbia. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 27: 331-342.
Simard, S.W., Perry, D.A., Smith, J.E., and Molina, R. (1997). Effects of soil trenching on occurrence of ectomycorrhizae on Pseudotsuga menziesii seedlings grown in mature forests of Betula papyrifera and Pseudotsuga menziesii. The New Phytologist, 136: 327-340.
Simard, S.W., Durall, D.M., and Jones, M.D. (1997). Carbon allocation and carbon transfer between Betula papyrifera and Pseudotsuga menziesii seedlings using a 13C pulse-labeling method. Plant and Soil, 191: 41-55.
Simard, S.W., Jones, M.D., Durall, D.M., Perry, D.A., Myrold, D.D., and Molina R. (1997). Reciprocal transfer of carbon isotopes between ectomycorrhizal Betula papyrifera and Pseudotsuga menziesii. The New Phytologist, 137: 529-542.
Jones, M.D., Durall, D.M., Harniman, S.M.K., Classen, D.C., and Simard, S.W. (1997). Ectomycorrhizal diversity on Betula papyrifera and Pseudotsuga menziesii seedlings grown in the greenhouse or outplanted in single-species and mixed plots in southern British Columbia. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 27: 1872-1889.
Wang, J.R., Zhong, A.L., Simard, S.W., Kimmins, J.P. (1996). Aboveground biomass and nutrient accumulation in an age sequence of paper birch (Betula papyrifera) stands in the Interior Cedar Hemlock zone, British Columbia. Forest Ecology and Management, 83: 27-38.
Simard, S.W. (1996). Design of a birch/conifer mixture study in the southern interior of British Columbia. In: Comeau, P.G., Thomas, K.D. (eds.), Designing Mixedwood Experiments: Workshop Proceedings, March 2, 1995, Richmond, B.C. Res. Br., B.C. Ministry of Forests, Victoria, B.C. Work. Pap. 20: 8-11.
Simard, S.W. (1996). Mixtures of paper birch and conifers: an ecological balancing act. In: Comeau, P.G., Thomas, K.D. (eds.), Silviculture of Temperate and Boreal Broadleaved-Conifer Species: Proceedings of a Workshop held Feb. 28-March 1, 1995, Richmond, B.C. B.C. Ministry of Forests Land Manage. Handb. 36: 15-21.
Simard, S.W. (1996). Ecological and silvicultural characteristics of paper birch in the southern interior of British Columbia. In: Comeau, P.G., Harper, G.J., Blache, M.P., Boateng, J.L., Thomas, K.D. (edds.), Ecology and Management of British Columbia Hardwoods: Workshop Proceedings, Dec. 1-2, 1993, Richmond, B.C. B.C. Ministry of Forests, Victoria, B.C. FRDA Report No. 255: 157-165.
Simard, S.W., Perry, D.A., Jones, M.D., Molina, R., Durall, D.M. (1996). Ecological significance of carbon transfer in ectomycorrhizal tree species mixtures. In: Szaro, T.M., Bruns, T.D. (eds.), First International Conference on Mycorrhizae, Aug. 4-9, 1996, Univ. Calif. Berkeley. ICOM1, Abstracts, p. 110.
Simard, S.W., Heineman, J.E. (1996). Nine year response of Douglas-fir and the Mixed Hardwood-Shrub complex to chemical and manual release treatments on an ICHmw2 site near Salmon Arm B.C. Ministry of Forests and Forestry Canada FRDA Report 257.
Simard, S.W., Heineman, J.E. (1996). Nine year response of Engelmann spruce and the Willow complex to chemical and manual release treatments on an ICHmw2 site near Vernon B.C. Ministry of Forests and Forestry Canada. FRDA Report 258.
Simard, S.W., Heineman, J.E. (1996). Nine year response of lodgepole pine and the Dry Alder complex to chemical and manual release treatments on an ICHmk1 site near Kelowna. B.C. Ministry of Forests and Forestry Canada FRDA Report 259.
Simard, S.W. (1995). Shading influences net carbon transfer among ectomycorrhizal tree seedlings in the field. In: Topa, M.A., Rygiewicz, P.T., Cumming, J.R. (eds.), Dynamics of Physiological Processes in Woody Roots, October 8-11, Ithaca, NY. Boyce Institute for Plant Research, U.S. E.P.A., IUFRO Root Physiology and Symbiosis Working Party. Booklet of Abstracts.
Simard, S.W. (1995). PROBE: Vegetation management monitoring in the southern interior of B.C. Northern Interior Vegetation Management Association, Annual General Meeting, Jan. 18, 1995, Williams Lake, B.C. NIVMA AGM 1995.
Wang, J.R., Simard, S.W., Kimmins, J.P. (1995). Physiological responses of paper birch to thinning in British Columbia Forest Ecology and Management, 73: 177-184.
Simard, S.W., Vyse, A. (1994). Paper birch: weed or crop tree in the Interior Cedar-Hemlock forests of southern British Columbia. In: Baumgartner, D.M., Lotan, J.E., Tonn, J.R. (eds.), Symposium proceedings of Interior Cedar-Hemlock-White Pine Forests: Ecology and Management, March 2-4, 1993, Spokane, Washington. Dept. Natural Resource Sciences, Washington State University, Pullman, WA. pp. 309-316.
Simard, S.W. (1993). PROBE: Protocol for operational brushing evaluations (first approximation). B.C. Ministry of Forests. Land Management Report 86.
Simard, S.W., Vyse, A. (1992). Ecology and management of paper birch and black cottonwood. B.C. Ministry of Forests. Land Management Report 75.
Simard, S.W. (1990). A retrospective study of competition between paper birch and planted Douglas-fir. Forestry Canada and B.C. Ministry of Forests. FRDA Report 147.
Simard, S.W. (1990). Competition between Sitka alder and lodgepole pine in the Montane Spruce zone in the southern interior of British Columbia. Forestry Canada and B.C. Ministry of Forests FRDA Report 150.
Simard, S.W., Nicholson, A. (1990). Balancing the positive and negative effects of non-crop plants on conifers: pinegrass, fireweed, sitka alder and paper birch. In: Hamilton, E. (ed.), Vegetation Management: An Integrated Approach, Proceedings of the Fourth Annual Vegetation Management Workshop, Nov. 14-16, 1989. B.C. Ministry of Forests, Victoria, B.C. FRDA Report No. 109: 45-48.