Editor, Forest Ecology and Management
Research Interests:
Forest Sciences Centre 2005
2424 Main Mall
Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z4
work phone: 6048224701

Areas of research include:

  • Rates of litter decomposition: controlling factors and influences of forestry practices
  • Influence of site and species on N availability
  • Linking soil microbial and faunal communities and nutrient cycling processes
  • Ecosystem restoration and soil reclamation
  • Effects of clearcutting and other silvicultural systems on N availability
  • Causes and amelioration of nutrient deficiencies
  • Long-term effects of forest fertilization


Litter decomposition and nitrogen cycling in forest soils: influences of tree species and site factors

(NSERC Discovery)

Carbon and nitrogen fluxes in reconstructed oil sands soils


The potential of retention trees to mitigate post-harvest soil carbon loss through reduction of root and soil organic matter decomposition

NSERC Strategic

Unit Associations

Belowground Ecosystem Group at UBC

Professional Affiliations

Canadian Institute of Forestry CIF
Canadian Soil Science Society CSSS
Council of Science Editors CSE
Ecological Society of America ESA
Northwest Forest Soils Council NWFSC
Soil Science Society of America SSSA
European Geophysical Union EGU


Canadian Forestry Scientific Achievement Award , 2005
Honourary Doctorate, University of Helsinki , 2014

Current Graduate Students

Anya Reid, PhD
Influence of organic-matter removal and compaction during forestry activities on soil properties, stand growth and pest occurrence
Adolpho Pati, MSc
How do ants alter carbon and nutrient fluxes in forests?
Meghan Anderson, MSc
Development of Soil Structure in Reconstructed Oil Sands Soils
Shalom Daniel AddoDanso, PhD
Productivity, carbon cycling and allocation in tropical primary and logged-over secondary forests in Ghana’
Relena Ribbons, PhD
Tree species effects on nitrogen cycling and soil communities
Jenna Zukswert, MSc
Role of Plant Functional Traits on Leaf Litter Decomposition

Current Courses

Winter 2016

FRST201 Forest Ecology Sections

The structure and function of forest ecosystems, including: energetics; productivity; nutrient, carbon and water cycling; soils; the physical environment; population and community ecology; disturbance ecology; ecological succession; biological diversity and ecological resilience.

Winter 2016

FRST505C Directed Studies in Forest Science - DS FRST SCIENCE Sections

Selected Publications

Prescott, CE, Zukswert, JM. (2016). Invasive plant species and litter decomposition: time to challenge assumptions. New Phytologist 209: 5-7
Reid, AM, WK Chapman and CE Prescott (2016). Comparing lodgepole pine growth and disease occurrence at six Long-Term Soil Productivity (LTSP) sites in British Columbia, Canada Canadian Journal of Forest Research
Addo-Danso, SD, Prescott, CE, Smith, AR. (2016). Methods for estimating root biomass and production in forest and woodland ecosystem carbon studies: A review. Forest Ecology and Management 359: 332-351
Levy-Booth, DJ, Prescott, CE, Christiansen, JR and Grayston, SJ. (2016). Site preparation and fertilization of wet forests alter soil bacterial and fungal abundance, community profiles and CO2 fluxes. Forest Ecology and Management 375: 159-171.
Ribbons, RR, Levy-Booth, DJ, Masse, J, Grayston, SJ, McDonald, MA, Vesterdal, L, and Prescott, CE. (2016). Linking microbial communities, functional genes and nitrogen-cycling processes in forest floors under four tree species. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 103: 181-191
Reid, AM, Chapman, WK, Prescott, CE. 2016 and Nijland, W. (2016). Using excess greenness and green chromatic coordinate colour indices from aerial images to assess lodgepole pine vigour, mortality and disease occurrence. Forest Ecology and Management 374: 146–153
Masse, J, Grayston SG, Prescott CE, and Müller, C (2016). Gross nitrogen transformation rates differ in reconstructed oil-sands soils from natural boreal-forest soils as revealed using a 15N tracing method. Geoderma 282: 37–48
Reid, AM, Chapman, WK, Kranabetter, MJ, Prescott, CE. (2015). Response of lodgepole pine health to soil disturbance treatments in British Columbia, Canada Can. J. For. Res. 45:1045-1055
Levy-Booth, Prescott CE, Grayston SJ (2014). Microbial functional genes involved in nitrogen fixation, nitrification and denitrification in forest ecosystems. Soil Biology & Biochemistry 75, 11-25.
Prescott, C.E, and K. Weese (2014). Crossing the Divide: Engaging scientists and policy-makers in adapting forest management to climate change in British Columbia Forestry Chronicle 90:61-67
Philpott TJ, CE Prescott, WK Chapman and SJ Grayston (2014). Nitrogen translocation and accumulation by a cord-forming fungus (Hypholoma fasciculare) into simulated woody debris Forest Ecology and Management 315: 121-128
Augusto L, A De Schrijver, L Vesterdal, A Smolander, CE Prescott and J Ranger (2014). Influences of evergreen gymnosperm and deciduous angiosperm tree species on the functioning of temperate and boreal forests Biological Reviews 11 JUN 2014, DOI: 10.1111/brv.12119
Kishchuk, Barbara, Sylvie Quideau, Yonghe Wang, and Cindy Prescott (2014). Long-term soil response to variable-retention harvesting in the EMEND (Ecosystem Management Emulating Natural Disturbance) experiment, northwestern Alberta Canadian Journal of Soil Science 94: 263-279
Prescott, C.E. (2014). The scientific value of long-term field trials in forest soils and nutrition research: an opportunist’s perspective Canadian Journal of Soil Science 94: 255-262
Quideau, S.A., M.J.B. Swallow, C.E. Prescott, S.J. Grayston, and S.-W. Oh (2013). Comparing soil biogeochemical processes in novel and natural boreal forest ecosystems Biogeosciences 10: 5651–5661
Prescott, Cindy and Lars Vesterdal (2013). Tree species effects on soils in temperate and boreal forests: emerging themes and research needs. Forest Ecology & Management 309: 1-3
Suzuki Y, Grayston SJ, Prescott CE. (2013). Effects of leaf litter consumption by millipedes (Harpaphe haydeniana) on subsequent decomposition depends on litter type Soil Biology & Biochemistry 57, 116-123.
Prescott CE and Grayston SJ (2013). Tree species influence on microbial communities in litter and soil: current knowledge and research needs. Forest Ecology & Management 309: 19-27
Campbell, J., P. Bengtson, A.L. Fredeen, D. Coxson and C.E. Prescott (2013). Does exogenous carbon extend the realized niche of canopy lichens? Evidence from sub-boreal forests in British Columbia? Ecology 94: 1186–1195
Prescott Cindy • Victor Nery • Annette van Niejenhuis • Toktam Sajedi • Peter Marshall (2013). Nutrition management of cedar and hemlock plantations in coastal British Columbia New Forests 44:769–784
Sajedi T, CE Prescott, B Seely, LM Lavkulich (2012). Relationships among soil moisture, aeration and plant communities in natural and harvested coniferous forests in coastal British Columbia, Canada. Journal of Ecology DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2745.2011.01942.x
Switzer J, Hope G, Grayston SJ, Prescott CE. (2012). Changes in soil chemical and biological properties after thinning and prescribed fire for ecosystem restoration in Rocky Mountain forests. Forest Ecology & Management 275, 1-13.
Brockett BFT, Prescott CE, Grayston SJ. (2012). Soil moisture is the major factor influencing microbial community structure and enzyme activities across seven biogeoclimatic zones in western Canada. Soil Biology & Biochemistry 44, 9-20.
Jerabkova L, CE Prescott, BD Titus, GD. Hope and MB Walters (2011). A meta-analysis of the effects of clearcut and variable-retention harvesting on soil nitrogen fluxes in boreal and temperate forests. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 41:1852-1870
Venner, KH, CM Preston and CE Prescott. (2011). Characteristics of wood wastes in British Columbia and their potential suitability as soil amendments and seedling growth media Can J Soil Science 91:95-106
Moore TR, JA Trofymow, CE Prescott, BD Titus and CIDET Working Group. (2011). Nature and nurture in the dynamics of C, N and P during litter decomposition in Canadian forests. Plant and Soil 339:163–175
Dordel, J., Simard, S.W., Bauhus, J., Guy, R.D., Prescott, C., Seely, B., Pojas, L.J. (2011). Effects of nurse-crop species and density on nutrient and water availability to underplanted T. ciliata in north-eastern Argentina Canadian Journal of Forest Research 41:1754-1768.
Dimitriu PA, Prescott CE, Quideau SA, Grayston SJ. (2010). Impact of reclamation of surface-mined boreal forest soils on microbial community composition and function. Soil Biology & Biochemistry 42, 2289-2297.
Campbell, J, GE Bradfield, CE Prescott and AL Fredeen (2010). The influence of overstorey Populus on epiphytic lichens in sub-boreal spruce forests of British Columbia NRC Press Can. J. For. Res. 40:143-154
Campbell, J, AL Fredeen and CE Prescott (2010). Decomposition and nutrient release from four epiphytic lichen litters in sub-boreal spruce forests NRC Press Can. J. For. Res. 40: 1473–1484
Prescott, C.E. (2010). Litter Decomposition: What controls it and how can we alter it to sequester more carbon in forest soils? Biogeochemistry 101:133-149
Dordel J, Simard SW, Bauhus J, Seely B, Pozas LJ, Prescott CE, Hampel H. (2010). Trade-offs among establishment success, stem morphology and productivity of underplanted Toona ciliata: effects of nurse-species and thinning density Forest Ecology and Management, 259: 1846-1855.
Rowland SM, Prescott CE, Grayston SJ, Quideau SA, Bradfield G. (2009). Recreating a functioning forest soil in reclaimed oil sands in northern Alberta: an approach for measuring success in ecological restoration. Journal of Environmental Quality 38, 1580-1590.
Basiliko N, Khan A, Roy R, Prescott CE, Grayston SJ. (2009). Greenhouse gas and nutrient dynamics in recently fertilized western Canadian plantation forest soils. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 39, 1220-1235.
Prescott, C.E. (2008). Heat-proof carbon compound Nature Geoscience 1:815-816
Prescott. C.E. and T. Sajedi (2008). The role of salal in forest regeneration problems in coastal British Columbia: problem or symptom? Forestry Chronicle 84:29-36
Herrmann, S. and C.E. Prescott (2008). Mass loss and nutrient dynamics of coarse woody debris in Rocky Mountain coniferous forests: 21-year results Canadian Journal of Forest Research 38:125-132
Grayston SJ and Prescott CE (2007). Towards sustainable forestry – The living soil: Soil biodiversity and ecosystem function – Foreword to Special Issue. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 37 (2), V-VI.
Jerabkova L, CE Prescott and BE Kishchuk (2007). Effect of variable-retention harvesting on soil nitrogen availability in boreal mixed-wood forests. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 36:3029-3038
Zabek, LM, CE Prescott. (2007). Steady-state nutrition and stable internal nutrient ratios of hybrid poplar grown from unrooted cuttings New Forests 34:13-23
Lalonde, RG and CE Prescott (2007). Partitioning heterotrophic and rhizospheric soil respiration in a mature Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) forest Canadian Journal of Forest Research 37:1287-1297
Bulmer, C, KH Venner and CE Prescott (2007). Forest soil rehabilitation with wood waste: tree growth and characteristics of rehabilitated and untreated soils -Canadian Journal of Forest Research 37: 1894-1906
Bengtson P, Basiliko N, Prescott CE, Grayston SJ (2007). Spatial dependency of soil nutrient availability and microbial properties in a mixed forest of Tsuga heterophylla and Pseudotsuga menziesii, in coastal British Columbia, Canada. Soil Biology & Biochemistry 39, 2429-2435.
Jerabkova, L. and C.E. Prescott (2007). Post-harvest soil nitrate dynamics in aspen- and spruce-dominated boreal forests. Forest Ecology and Management 242:209-216
Negrave, R. and C.E. Prescott (2007). Growth and Nutrition of Juvenile Conifer Plantations with Different Fertilization and Stand Density Combinations on Northern Vancouver Island -Canadian Journal of Forest Research 37: 2587-2599
Moore, T.R., C.E. Prescott et al. (2006). Patterns of carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus dynamics in decomposing foliar litter in Canadian forests. Ecosystems 9:46-62
Zabek, LM, CE Prescott. (2006). Biomass equations and carbon content of aboveground leafless biomass of hybrid poplar in coastal British Columbia. For. Ecol. Manage. 223:291-302.
Jerabkova, L, Prescott, CE and Kishchuk, BE. (2006). Nitrogen availability in soil and forest floors of contrasting types of boreal mixedwood forests. Can. J. For. Res. 36:112-122.
Blevins, L.L., C.E. Prescott, A.V. Niejenhuis (2006). The Effect of Phosphorus Fertilization on Nitrogen and Phosphorus Deficient Sites on Northern Vancouver Island. Forest Ecology and Management 234:116-122.
Titus, BD, CE Prescott and 7 others. (2006). Post-harvest nitrogen cycling in clearcut and alternative silvicultural systems in coastal British Columbia Forestry Chronicle 82:844-859
Prescott, C.E. and L. Vesterdal (2005). Effects of British Columbia tree species on forest floor chemistry. Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, The Netherlands. -In: O. Menyailo and D. Binkley (eds). Trees and Soil Interactions, Implications to Global Climate Change. NATO Science Series.
Prescott, C.E. (2005). Decomposition and mineralization of nutrients from litter and humus. Springer Verlag Ecological Studies series. Springer, Berlin. pp. 15-41 In: Nutrient acquisition by plants: an ecological perspective. H. BassiriRad, editor.
Blevins, D.P. C.E. Prescott, H.L. Allen, and T. Newsome (2005). The Effects of Nutrition and Density on Growth, Foliage Biomass, and Growth Efficiency of High-density, Fire-origin Lodgepole Pine in Central British Columbia. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 35: 2857-2859
Moore, T.R., J.A. Trofymow, M. Siltanen, C. Prescott, and CIDET Working Group (2005). Patterns of decomposition and carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus dynamics of litter in upland forest and peatland sites in central Canada. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 35: 133-142
Prescott, Cindy E., L. Blevins (2005). Eleven-year growth response of young conifers to biosolids or nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizer on northern Vancouver Island. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 35: 211-214
Blevins, D, CE Prescott, HL Allen and T Newsome. (2005). Effects of thinning and fertilization on repressed lodgepole pine growth, foliage biomass, and growth efficiency. Can. J. For. Res. 35:2851-2859.
Prescott, C.E. (2005). Do rates of litter decomposition tell us anything we really need to know? Forest Ecology and Management, 220: 66-74
Grayston, S.J. and C.E. Prescott (2005). Microbial communities in forest floors under four tree species in coastal British Columbia. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 37: 1157-1167
Leckie, S. C.E. Prescott and S.J. Grayston (2004). Forest floor microbial response to tree species and fertilization of regenerating coniferous forests. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 34: 1426-1435
Prescott, C.E., Vesterdal, L., Preston, C.M., and Simard, S.W. (2004). Influence of initial chemistry on decomposition of foliar litter in contrasting forest types in British Columbia. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 34: 1714-1729.
Leckie SE, Prescott CE, Grayston SJ, Neufeld JD and Mohn WW (2004). Characterisation of microbial communities in adjacent forest types that differ in nitrogen availability. Microbial Ecology, 48: 29-40
Bennett, J.N, and C.E Prescott. (2004). Organic and inorganic nitrogen nutrition of western red cedar, western hemlock and salal in mineral N-limited cedar-hemlock forests. Oecologia, 141: 468-476
Prescott, C.E., L. Blevins, C. Staley (2004). Litter decomposition in B.C. forests: controlling factors and influences of forestry activities. BC Journal of Ecosystems and Management, 5(2):30-43
Hannam, K. and C.E. Prescott (2003). Does clearcutting alter the abundance of soluble organic nitrogen in forest soils? Can. J. For. Res., 33: 1709-1718.
Bennett, J.N., L.L. Blevins, J.E. Barker, D.P. Blevins and C.E. Prescott. (2003). Increases in tree growth and nutrient supply still apparent 10-13 years following fertilization and vegetation control of salal-dominated cedar-hemlock stands on Vancouver Island. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 33: 1516-1524.
Weber, A., B. Gilbert, J.P. Kimmins and C.E. Prescott (2003). Factors limiting the early survivorship of Thuja plicata on northern Vancouver Island. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 33: 854-861
Weber, A., B. Gilbert, J.P. Kimmins and C.E. Prescott. (2003). Factors limiting the early survivorship of (Thuja plicata) on northern Vancouver Island. Can. J. For. Res., 33:,854-861.
Leckie, S.E., Prescott, C.E., Grayston, S.J., Neufeld, J.D., and Mohn, W.W. (2003). Characterization of humus microbial communities in adjacent forest types that differ in nitrogen availability. Microbial Ecology, 48: 29-40 (2004)
Prescott, C.E. (2002). The influence of the forest canopy on nutrient cycling. Tree Physiol., 22: 1193-1200
Trofymow, J.A., T.R. Moore, B. Titus, C.E. Prescott et al. (2002). Rates of litter decomposition after six years in Canadian forests: influence of litter quality and climate. Can. J. For. Res., 32: 789-804.
Kishchuck, B.E., G.F. Weetman, R.B. Brockley, and C.E. Prescott. (2002). 14-year growth response of young lodgepole pine to repeated fertilization. Can. J. For. Res., 32: 153-160
Bennett, J.N., B. Andrew and C.E. Prescott (2002). Vertical fine root distributions of western redcedar, western hemlock and salal in old-growth cedar-hemlock forests on northern Vancouver Island. Can. J. For. Res., 32: 1208-1216.
Bothwell, K.S., C.E. Prescott and M.C. Jones. (2001). Factors contributing to the superior growth and N nutrition of 11-year-old lodgepole pine compared to Sitka spruce on a N-poor cedar-hemlock cutover. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 31: 1272-1279
Cárcamo, H.A., Prescott, C.E., Chanway, C.P. and T.A. Abe (2001). Do soil fauna increase rates of litter breakdown and nitrogen release in forests of British Columbia? Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 31: 1195-1204.
Rowell, D.M., C.E. Prescott and C.M. Preston. (2001). Decomposition and nitrogen mineralization from biosolids and other organic materials: relationship with initial chemistry. J. Environ. Qual., 30: 1401.
Mallik, A.U. and C.E. Prescott. (2001). Growth inhibitory effects of salal (Gaultheria shallon) on western hemlock and western red cedar: Allelopathy or competition? Agron. J., 93: 85-92.
Prescott, C.E., L.L. Blevins and C.L. Staley. (2000). Effects of clearcutting on decomposition rates of litter and humus in forests of British Columbia. Can. J. For. Res., 30: 1751-1757.
Prescott, C.E., H.N. Chappell and L. Vesterdal. (2000). Nitrogen cycling in coastal Douglas-fir forests along a gradient in soil nitrogen capital. Ecol., 81: 1878-1886.
Prescott, C.E., D.G. Maynard and R. Laiho. (2000). Humus in boreal forests: Friend or foe? For. Ecol. Manage., 133: 23-36.
Prescott, C.E., L. Vesterdal, J. Pratt, K.H. Venner, L.M. de Montigny, and J.A. Trofymow. (2000). Nutrient concentrations and nitrogen mineralization in forest floors of single species conifer plantations in coastal British Columbia. Can. J. For. Res., 30: 1341-1352.
Prescott, C.E., L.M. Zabek, C.L. Staley, and R. Kabzems. (2000). Decomposition of broadleaf and needle litter in forests of British Columbia: Influences of litter type, forest type and litter mixtures. Can. J. For. Res., 30: 1742-1750.
Thomas, K.D. and C.E. Prescott. (2000). Nitrogen availability in forest floors of three tree species on the same site: The role of litter quality. Can. J. For. Res., 30: 1698-1706.
Bradley, R.L., B.D. Titus, K. Hogg, C. Preston, C.E. Prescott, and J.P. Kimmins. (2000). Assessing the controls on soil mineral-N cycling rates in managed coastal western hemlock ecosystems of British Columbia. J. Sustainable Forestry, 10: 213-219.
Weetman, G.F. and C. Prescott. (2000). The structure, functioning and management of old-growth cedar-hemlock-fir forests on Vancouver Island, British Columbia. Blackwell Science Ltd., Oxford. pp. 275-287 in Evans, J. (ed.), The Forests Handbook, Volume 2: Applying Forest Science for Sustainable Management.
Cárcamo, H.A., T.A. Abe, C.E. Prescott, and C.P. Chanway (2000). Influence of millipedes on litter decomposition, N mineralization, and microbial communities in a coastal forest in British Columbia, Canada. Can. J. For. Res., 30: 817-826.
Chappell, H.N., C.E. Prescott and L. Vesterdal. (1999). Long-term nitrogen availability in repeatedly fertilized coastal Douglas-fir. Soil Sci. Soc. Amer., 63: 1448-1454.
Laiho, R. and C.E. Prescott. (1999). The contribution of coarse woody debris to carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus cycles in three Rocky Mountain coniferous forests. Can. J. For. Res., 29: 1592-1603.
Moore, T.R., J.A. Trofymow, B. Taylor, C. Prescott, C. Camire, L. Duschene, J. Fyles, L. Kozak, M. Kranabetter, I. Morrison, M. Siltanen, S. Smith, B. Titus, S. Visser, R. Wein and S. Zoltai. (1999). Litter decomposition rates in Canadian forests. Global Change Biology, 5: 75-82.
Prescott, C.E. and L. Blevins. (1999). The Salal Cedar Hemlock Integrated Research Program: Management through understanding. For. Chron., 75: 447-451.
Prescott, C.E., R. Kabzems and L.M. Zabek. (1999). Effects of fertilization on decomposition rate of Populus tremuloides Michx. foliar litter in a boreal forest. Can. J. For. Res., 29: 393-397.
Prescott, C.E., D.G. Maynard and R. Laiho. (1999). Humus in boreal forests: Friend or foe? University of Northern B.C., Prince George. pp. 3-20 in Proc. Ecology and Management of Northern Forest Soils.
Weetman, G.F., C.E. Prescott, F.L. Kohlberger and R.M. Fournier. (1998). Ten-year growth response of coastal Douglas-fir to N and S fertilization in an optimum nutrition trial. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 27: 1478-1482.
Prescott, C.E. and S.M. Brown. (1998). Do Organic fertilizers provide a sustained growth response to conifers? Canadian Journal of Forest Reseach, 28: 1328-1334.
Prescott, C.E. (1997). Effects of clearcutting and alternative silvicultural systems on rates of decomposition and nitrogen mineralization in a coastal montane forest. Forest Ecology and Management, 95: 253-260.
Prescott, C.E. and G. Hope. (1997). Sicamous Creek Silvicultural Systems Trial: Litter input, decomposition and nitrogen mineralization. In Sicamous Creek Silvicultural Systems Project Workshop Proceedings. C. Hollstedt and A. Vyse, (eds.), Research Branch, BC Ministry of Forests. Working Paper 24, Victoria, BC.
Prescott, C.E. and L.M. Zabek. (1997). Growth response and nutrient availability in western red cedar plantations following amendment with fish compost and straw. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 27: 598-602
Weetman, G.F., C.E. Prescott, F.L. Kohlberger and R.M. Fournier (1997). Ten-year growth response of coastal Douglas-fir to N and S fertilization in an optimum nutrition trial. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 27: 1478-1482.
Weetman. G.F., C.E. Prescott, F.L. Kohlberger, and R.M. Fournier. (1997). Ten-year growth response of coastal Douglas-fir on Vancouver Island to N and S fertilization in an optimum nutrition trial. Can. J. For. Res., 27: 1478-1482.
Prescott, C.E. (1996). A Field Guide to Regeneration of Salal-Dominated Cedar Hemlock Sites in the CWH. Faculty of Forestry, U.B.C.
Prescott, C.E. (1996). Influence of forest floor type on rates of litter decomposition in microcosms. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 28: 1319-1325
Keenan, R.J., C.E. Prescott, J.P. Kimmins, J. Pastor and B. Dewey. (1996). Mass loss and nutrient dynamics of decomposing litter in western redcedar and western hemlock forests on northern Vancouver Island, British Columbia. Canadian Journal of Botany, 74: 1626-1634.
Prescott, C.E., G.F. Weetman and J.E. Barker. (1996). Causes and amelioration of nutrient deficiencies in cedar-hemlock cutovers in coastal British Columbia. Forestry Chronicle, 72: 293-302