Forest Sciences Centre
2424 Main Mall
Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z4
Canada
work phone: 6048223360

Ongoing research interests:

  • Role of climate change in the population dynamics and impacts of eruptive forest insects 
  • Coevolution of insect-plant interactions
  • Integrated management of forest insect populations
  • Advanced techniques for detection and monitoring of forest insect populations

Research Areas

Population dynamics
Insect-plant interactions
Trophic interactions
Integrated pest management
Climate change

Projects

Climate change and forest insect disturbance

Altered disturbance regimes due to global warming are anticipated across the boreal and sub-boreal forests of the world. These changes have already begun to manifest as increases in the extent/severity of insect outbreaks in North America. This component of my research program is intended to elucidate the independent and interacting effects of climate and forest management on bark beetle population eruptions.

Bark beetle population dynamics

Eruptive bark beetles comprise the most significant source of disturbance in western North American conifer forests. Prediction of outbreaks and mitigation of impacts has been hampered by a lack of knowledge of their population processes. My research focuses on the role of small changes in trophic interactions that allow populations of aggressive bark beetle species to increase past an endemic-epidemic population threshold defined by host tree resistance, allowing the formation of localized spot infestations that coalesce into landscape-scale outbreaks.

Risk assessment of the threat of mountain pine beetle to North America’s boreal forest

Due to the synergistic effects of a warming environment and forest management tactics (i.e. fire suppression) that dramatically increased the abundance and distribution of susceptible host trees, the mountain pine beetle outbreak has reached unprecedented levels and breached the historic geoclimatic barrier of the northern Rocky Mountains. Populations are now established within the western margins of the jack pine forests that extend east across boreal North America. This research focuses on quantification of the risk of continued range expansion by the mountain pine beetle through boreal and eastern pine forests.

Advanced techniques for pest detection and monitoring

Efforts to develop methods for the detection and monitoring of forest conditions require a multidisciplinary, comprehensive approach to address the complexities of forest ecosystems. Typically, researchers are either experts at detection technologies or field biology, rendering the products strong in one or a few disciplines, but weak in others. This research theme comprises multidisciplinary efforts aimed at developing biologically meaningful techniques for remote detection of forest insect pests and their impacts.


Awards

Chaire internationale, Bureau des Relations Internationales et de la Cooperation, Universite Libre de Bruxelles , 2010
Natural Resources Canada, Award of Excellence for Executive Leadership , 2008
Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Forest Service, Merit Award for Creativity and Innovation , 2008
Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Forest Service, Merit Award for Collaboration and Partnership , 2007

Current Graduate Students

Debra Wytrykush, PhD
Role of climate-induced shifts in voltinism on the eruptive potential of the spruce beetle, Dendroctonus rufipennis
Jordan Burke, PhD
Evolution of induced defenses by lodgepole pine against the mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae
Romain Belvas, MSc
Modelling the risk of spread by the mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae, through the boreal forest
Stanley Pokorny, PhD
Dynamics of endemic mountain pine beetle populations in novel pine habitats
MarcAntoine Leclerc, MSc
Managing habitat for single species: Implications for forest resilience to natural disturbances
Wesley Brookes, MSc
Historical disturbance regimes in dry interior Douglas-fir ecosystems

Current Courses

Winter 2016

FRST307 Biotic Disturbances Sections

Concepts of disturbance ecology with special reference to insects and diseases in the forests of British Columbia; forest health problems in the biogeoclamatic zones of BC; present management strategies and future potentials in a scenario of climate change.

Winter 2016

FRST408 Problems of Forest Entomology Sections

Decision-making in the protection of forests from insects. Insect problems viewed from other disciplines of forestry. Bases of biological and economic evaluation, and choice of control methods.

Winter 2016

FRST508 Forest Insect Ecology Sections

Interactions between insects and forests; evaluation of current approaches to research in forest entomology; examination of theories and axioms; application of ecological principles in pest management.

Winter 2016

FRST498 B.Sc. Thesis in Forestry Sections

An independent study or research project of a subject of special interest to the student under the direction of a staff member. The subject must be appropriate to the student's area of concentration.

Winter 2016

FRST557 Site-Level Forest Land Management Sections

Design and implementation of site-level plans that integrate ecological, social, and economic components: silviculture, forest operations, and forest health.

Winter 2016

CONS101 Introduction to Conservation Sections

Seminars on current natural resources conservation and forest sciences topics.

Selected Publications


Aukema, B.H., McKee, F.R., Wytrykush, D.L. and Carroll, A.L. (2016). Population dynamics and epidemiology of bark beetles: 100 years since J.M. Swaine The Canadian Entomologist, in press. DOI:10.4039/tce.2016.5
Burke, J.L. and Carroll, A.L. (2016). The influence of variation in host tree monoterpene composition on secondary attraction by an invasive bark beetle: Implications for range expansion and potential host shift by the mountain pine beetle. Forest Ecology and Management 359: 59-64. DOI:10.1016/j.foreco.2015.09.044
Raffa, K.F., Aukema, B.H., Bentz, B.J., Carroll, A.L., Hicke, J.A., Kolb, T.E. (2015). Responses of tree-killing bark beetles to a changing climate. Pages 173-201 in Bjorkman, C. and Niemela, P. (eds.). Climate Change and Insect Pests. CAB International, Oxfordshire, UK. 292pp. DOI: 10.1079/9781780643786.0173
Song Y, Simard S, Carroll AL, Mohn WW and Zeng RS (2015). Defoliation of interior Douglas-fir elicits carbon transfer and stress signalling to ponderosa pine neighbors through ectomycorrhizal networks. Scientific Reports 5(8495): 1-9. DOI: 10.1038/srep08495.
Clark, E.L., Pitt, C., Lindgren, B.S., Carroll, A.L. and Huber, D.P.W. (2014). Comparison of lodgepole and jack pine constitutive and induced resin chemistry: implications for range expansion by the mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae, (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). PeerJ. 2:e240; DOI 10.7717/peerj.240
Bleiker, K.P., O’Brien, M.R., Smith, G.D. and Carroll, A.L. (2014). Characterization of attacks made by the mountain pine beetle during its endemic population phase. The Canadian Entomologist 146: 271-284. DOI 10.4039/tce.2013.71
Fleming, A.J., Lindeman, A.A., Carroll, A.L. and Yack, J.E. (2013). Acoustics of the mountain pine beetle Dendroctonus ponderosae (Curculionidae, Scolytinae): sonic, ultrasonic and vibration characteristics. Canadian Journal of Zoology 91: 235-244
Sambaraju, K.R., Carroll, A.L., Zhu, J., Stahl, K., Moore, R.D. and Aukema, B.H. (2012). Climate change could alter the distribution of mountain pine beetle outbreaks in western Canada. Ecography 35: 211-223
Clark, E.L., Huber, D.P.W. and Carroll, A.L. (2012). The legacy of attack: implications of very high phloem resin monoterpene levels in mass attacked lodgepole pines following successful mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins, colonization. Environmental Entomology 41: 392-398
De la Giroday, H.M., Carroll, A.L. and Aukema, B.H. (2012). Breach of the northern Rocky Mountain geoclimatic barrier: initiation of range expansion by the mountain pine beetle. Journal of Biogeography 39: 1112-1123
De la Giroday, H.M., Carroll, A.L., Lindgren, B.S. and Aukema, B.H. (2011). Incoming! Association of landscape features with dispersing mountain pine beetle populations during a range expansion event in western Canada. Landscape Ecology 26: 1097–1110
Six, D.L., de Beer, Z.W., Duong, T.A., Carroll A.L. and Wingfield, M.J. (2011). Fungal associates of the lodgepole pine beetle, Dendroctonus murrayanae. Antonie van Leeuwenhoek 100: 231-244
Bleiker, K.P. and Carroll, A.L. (2011). Rating introgression between lodgepole and jack pine at the individual tree level using morphological traits. Northern Journal of Applied Forestry 28: 138-145
Steinbauer, M.J. and Carroll, A.L. (2011). Insights into herbivore distribution and abundance: oviposition preferences of the western hemlock and phantom hemlock loopers. The Canadian Entomologist 143: 72-81
Smith, G.D., Carroll, A.L. and Lindgren, B.S. (2011). Facilitation in bark beetles: endemic mountain pine beetle gets a helping hand. Agricultural and Forest Entomology 13: 37-43
Boone, C.K., Aukema, B.H., Bohlmann, J., Carroll, A.L. and Raffa K.F. (2011). Efficacy of tree defense physiology varies with bark beetle population density: a basis for positive feedback in eruptive species. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 41: 1-15
Alfaro, R.I., Battisti, A., Carroll, A.L., Fleming, R., Hantula, J., Francis, D., Hennon, P.E., Lanfranco, D., Lilja, A., Muller, M., Ramos, M. and Woods, A. (2010). Forest health in a changing environment. Pages 113-134 in Mery, G., Katila, P., Galloway, G., Alfaro, R.I., Kanninen, M., Lobovikov, M. and Varjo, J. (eds.). Forest and Society – responding to Global Drivers of Change. IUFRO World Series Volume 25. Vienna. 509 p., International Union of Forest Research Organizations
Safranyik L., Carroll A.L., Régnèire J., Langor D.W., Riel W.G., Shore T.L., Peter B., Cooke B.J., Nealis V.G. and Taylor S.W. (2010). Potential for range expansion of mountain pine beetle into the boreal forest of North America. The Canadian Entomologist 142: 415-442
Cudmore T.J., Björklund N., Carroll A.L. and Lindgren B.S. (2010). Climate change and range expansion of an aggressive bark beetle: evidence of higher reproductive success in naïve host tree populations. Journal of Applied Ecology 47: 1036-1043
Clark E.L., Carroll A.L. and Huber D.P.W. (2010). Differences in lodgepole pine constitutive terpene profile across a geographic range in British Columbia and the correlation to historical attack by mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). The Canadian Entomologist 142: 557-573
Raffa, K.F., Aukema, B.H., Bentz, B.J., Carroll, A.L., Erbilgin N., Herms, D.A., Hicke, J.A., Hofstetter, R.W., Katovich, S., Lindgren, B.S., Logan, J.A., Mattson, W., Munson, A.S., Robison, D.J., Six, D.L., Tobin, P.C., Townsend, P.A. and Wallin K.F. (2009). A literal meaning of forest health safeguards against misuses and misapplications. Journal of Forestry 107: 276-277
Smith, G.D., Carroll, A.L. and Lindgren B.S. (2009). The life history of a secondary bark beetle, Pseudips mexicanus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae), in lodgepole pine in British Columbia. The Canadian Entomologist 141: 56-69
Wulder, M.A., J.C. White, Carroll, A.L., Coops, N.C. (2009). Challenges for the operational detection of mountain pine beetle green attack with remote sensing. The Forestry Chronicle. 85: 32-38
Bentz, B., Allen, C.D., Ayres, M. Berg, E. Carroll, A.L., Hansen, M., Hicke, J., Joyce, L., Logan, J., MacFarlane, W., MacMahon, J., Munson, S., Negron, J., Paine, T., Powell, J., Raffa, K., Régnière, J., Reid, M., Romme, W., Seybold, S., Six, D., Tomback, D., Vandygriff, J., Veblen, T., White, M., Witcosky, J. and Wood, D. (2009). Bark Beetle Outbreaks in Western North America: Causes and Consequences. University of Utah Press, Logan, UT ISBN 978-0-87480965-7, 42p.
Lemprière, T.C., Bernier, P.Y., Carroll, A.L., Flannigan, M.D., Gilsenan, R.P., McKenney, D.W., Hogg, E.H., Pedlar, J.H. and Blain, D. (2008). The importance of forest sector adaptation to climate change. Natural Resources Canada. Canadian Forest Service Information Report NOR-X-416E
Raffa, K.F., Aukema, B.H., Bentz, B.J., Carroll, A.L., Hicke, J.A., Turner, M.G. and Romme, W.H. (2008). Cross-scale drivers of natural disturbances prone to anthropogenic amplification: dynamics of biome-wide bark beetle eruptions. BioScience 58: 501-517
Kurz, W.A., Dymond, C.C., Stinson, G., Rampley, G.J., Neilson, E.T., Carroll, A.L., Ebata, T. and Safranyik, L. (2008). Mountain pine beetle and forest carbon: feedback to climate change. Nature 452: 987-990
Aukema, B.H., Carroll, A.L., Zheng, Y., Zhu, J., Raffa, K.F., Moore, R.D., Stahl, K. and Taylor, S.W. (2008). Movement of outbreak populations of mountain pine beetle: influence of spatiotemporal patterns and climate. Ecography 31: 348-358
Zhu, J., Zheng, Y., Carroll, A.L., and Aukema, B.H. (2008). Autologistic regression analysis of spatial-temporal binary data via Monte Carlo maximum likelihood. Journal of Agricultural, Biological, and Environmental Statistics 13: 84-98
Nelson, T., Boots, B., Wulder, M.A., and Carroll, A.L. (2008). The environmental characteristics of mountain pine beetle infestation hot spots. BC Journal of Ecosystems & Management 8: 91-108
White, J.C., Coops, N.C., Hilker, T., Wulder, M.A., Carroll, A.L. (2007). Detecting mountain pine beetle red attack damage with EO-1 Hyperion moisture indices. International Journal of Remote Sensing. 28: 2111-2121
Carroll, A.L. (2007). The mountain pine beetle Dendroctonus ponderosae in Western North America: potential for area-wide integrated management. Pages 297-307 in Vreysen, M.J.B., Robinson A.S., and Hendrichs J. (eds.), Area-Wide Control of Insect Pests: From Research to Field Implementation. Springer, Dordrecht, The Netherlands
Carroll, A.L.; Shore, T.L.; Safranyik, L. (2006). Direct control: theory and practice. Pages 155-172 in Safranyik, L. and Wilson, B. (eds) The Mountain Pine Beetle: a Synthesis of its Biology, Management and Impacts on Lodgepole Pine. Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Forest Service, Pacific Forestry Centre, Victoria, BC
Safranyik, L. and Carroll, A.L. (2006). The biology and epidemiology of the mountain pine beetle in lodgepole pine forests. Pages 3-66 in Safranyik, L. and Wilson, B. (eds) The Mountain Pine Beetle: a Synthesis of its Biology, Management and Impacts on Lodgepole Pine. Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Forest Service, Pacific Forestry Centre, Victoria, BC
Taylor, S.W., Carroll, A.L., Alfaro, R.I. and Safranyik, L. (2006). Forest, climate and mountain pine beetle dynamics. Pages 67-94 in Safranyik, L. and Wilson, B. (eds) The Mountain Pine Beetle: a Synthesis of its Biology, Management and Impacts on Lodgepole Pine. Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Forest Service, Pacific Forestry Centre, Victoria, BC
Carroll, A.L., Aukema, B.H., Raffa, K.F., Smith G.D. and Lindgren B.S. (2006). Mountain pine beetle outbreak development: the endemic – incipient transition. Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Forest Service, Mountain Pine Beetle Initiative, Project 1.02, Working Paper
Carroll, A.L., Régnière, J., Logan, J.A., Taylor, S.W., Bentz, B.J. and Powell, J.A. (2006). Impacts of climate change on range expansion by the mountain pine beetle. Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Forest Service, Mountain Pine Beetle Initiative, Project 1.02, Working Paper
Aukema, B.H., Carroll, A.L., Zhu, J., Raffa, K.F., Sickley, T. and Taylor, S.W. (2006). Landscape level analysis of mountain pine beetle in British Columbia, Canada: spatiotemporal development and spatial synchrony within the present outbreak. Ecography 29: 427-441
Wulder, M., Dymond, D., White, J., Leckie, D. and Carroll, A.L. (2006). Surveying mountain pine beetle damage of forests: a review of remote sensing opportunities. Forest Ecology and Management 221: 27-41
Safranyik, L., Shore, T.L., Carroll. A.L. and Linton, D.A. (2004). Bark beetle (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) diversity in spaced and unmanaged mature lodgepole pine (Pinaceae) in south-eastern British Columbia. Forest Ecology and Management 200: 23-38
Magnussen, S., Coops, N., Luther, J.E. and Carroll, A.L. (2004). An approach for the analysis of vegetation spectra using non-linear mixed modeling of truncated power spectra. Annals of Forest Science 61: 515-213
Carroll, A.L., Taylor S.W., Régnière J. and Safranyik, L. (2004). Effects of climate and climate change on the mountain pine beetle Pages 221-230 in Shore, T.L., J.E. Brooks and J.E. Stone (eds) Challenges and Solutions: Proceedings of the Mountain Pine Beetle Symposium. Kelowna, British Columbia, Canada October 30 – 31, 2003. Canadian Forest Service, Pacific Forestry Centre, Information Report BC-X-399
Carroll, A.L. and Safranyik, L. (2004). The bionomics of mountain pine beetle in lodgepole pine forests: establishing a context. Pages 19-30 in Shore, T.L., J.E. Brooks and J.E. Stone (eds) Challenges and Solutions: Proceedings of the Mountain Pine Beetle Symposium. Kelowna, British Columbia, Canada October 30 – 31, 2003. Canadian Forest Service, Pacific Forestry Centre, Information Report BC-X-399
Taylor, S.W. and Carroll, A.L. (2004). Disturbance, forest age dynamics and mountain pine beetle outbreaks in BC: A historical perspective. Pages 41-51 in Shore, T.L., J.E. Brooks and J.E. Stone (eds) Challenges and Solutions: Proceedings of the Mountain Pine Beetle Symposium. Kelowna, British Columbia, Canada October 30 – 31, 2003. Canadian Forest Service, Pacific Forestry Centre, Information Report BC-X-399
Allen, E., Carroll, A.L., Humble, L., Leal, I., Breuil, C., Uzonovic, A. and Walter, D. (2004). Phytosanitary risks associated with mountain pine beetle-killed trees. Pages 174-176 in Shore, T.L., J.E. Brooks and J.E. Stone (eds) Challenges and Solutions: Proceedings of the Mountain Pine Beetle Symposium. Kelowna, British Columbia, Canada October 30 – 31, 2003. Canadian Forest Service, Pacific Forestry Centre, Information Report BC-X-399
Whitehead, R.J., Safranyik, L., Russo, G.L., Shore, T.L. and Carroll, A.L. (2004). Silviculture to reduce landscape and stand susceptibility to the mountain pine beetle. Pages 233-244 in Shore, T.L., J.E. Brooks and J.E. Stone (eds) Challenges and Solutions: Proceedings of the Mountain Pine Beetle Symposium. Kelowna, British Columbia, Canada October 30 – 31, 2003. Canadian Forest Service, Pacific Forestry Centre, Information Report BC-X-399
Carroll, A.L. and Quiring, D.T. (2003). Herbivory modifies conifer phenology: induced amelioration by a specialist folivore. Oecologia 136: 88-95
Franklin, S.E., Wulder, M.A. Skakun, R. and Carroll, A.L. (2003). Mountain pine beetle red-attack forest damage classification using stratified landsat TM data in British Columbia, Canada. Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing 69: 283-288
Carroll, A.L. and Linton, D.A. (2002). Managing mountain pine beetle populations in British Columbia. Forest Health and Biodiversity News 6: 2-5
Whitaker, D.M., Carroll, A.L. and Montevecchi, W.A. (2000). Increases in numbers of flying insects and insectivorous birds in riparian buffer strips. Canadian Journal of Zoology 78: 740-747
Carroll, A.L. (1999). Physiological adaptation to temporal variation in conifer foliage by a caterpillar. The Canadian Entomologist 131: 659-669
Luther, J.E., and Carroll, A.L. (1999). Development of an index of balsam fir vigour by foliar spectral reflectance. Remote Sensing of Environment 69: 241-252
Luther, J.E. and Carroll, A.L. (1997). Remote sensing of balsam fir forest vigour. SPIE 3222: 273-279
Carroll, A.L. (1996). Evaluation of the decision-support capacity of the eastern hemlock looper decision support system. Pages 9-14 in MacLean, D.A. and Shore, T. (eds) Decision Support Systems for Forest Pest Management. Proceedings of a Workshop at the Joint Meeting of the Entomological Societies of Canada and British Columbia. Victoria, BC. Canada – British Columbia Partnership Agreement on Forest Resource Development: FRDA II Report No. 260
Carroll, A.L. (1996). The dynamics of eastern hemlock looper populations. Pages 7-12 in Hudak, J. (ed) The Eastern Hemlock Looper, Lambdina fiscellaria fiscellaria (Guen.) (Lepidoptera: Geometridae) in Newfoundland, 1983-1995. Canadian Forest Service, Pacific Forestry Centre, Information Report N-X-302
Carroll, A.L. and Meades, J.P. (1996). The eastern hemlock looper decision support system. Pages 59-67 in Hudak, J. (ed) The Eastern Hemlock Looper, Lambdina fiscellaria fiscellaria (Guen.) (Lepidoptera: Geometridae) in Newfoundland, 1983-1995. Canadian Forest Service, Pacific Forestry Centre, Information Report N-X-302
Carroll, A.L., Hudak, J., Meades, J.P., Power, J.M., Gillis, T., McNamee, P.J., Wedeles, C.H.R. and Sutherland, G.D. (1995). EHLDSS: A decision support system for management of the eastern hemlock looper. Pages 807-824 in Power, J.M., Strome, M. and Daniel, T.C. (eds) Decision Support 2001. Proceedings of the 17th Annual Geographic Information Seminar and Resource Technology ’94 Symposium. Toronto, ON. American Society for Photogrammetry & Remote Sensing, Bethesda, MD.
Carroll, A.L. (1994). Interactions between body size and mating history influence the reproductive success of males of a tortricid moth, Zeiraphera canadensis. Canadian Journal of Zoology 72: 2124-2132
Carroll, A.L. and Quiring, D.T. (1994). Intra-tree variation in foliage development influences the foraging strategy of a caterpillar. Ecology 75: 1978-1990
Carroll, A.L. and Quiring, D.T. (1993). Influence of feeding by Zeiraphera canadensis (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) on growth of white spruce: larval density – damage and damage – shoot production relationships. Journal of Applied Ecology 30: 629-639
Carroll, A.L. and Quiring, D.T. (1993). Interactions between size and temperature influence fecundity and longevity of a tortricid moth, Zeiraphera canadensis. Oecologia 93: 233-241
Carroll, A.L., Lawlor, M.F. and Quiring, D.T. (1993). Influence of feeding by Zeiraphera canadensis, the spruce bud moth, on stem-wood growth of white spruce. Forest Ecology and Management 58: 41-49
Carroll, A.L. and Quiring, D.T. (1992). Sucrose ingestion by Zeiraphera canadensis Mut. & Free. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) increases longevity and lifetime fecundity but not oviposition rate. The Canadian Entomologist 124: 335-340